|Office||Young Hall 2077A|
|Office Phone||(310) 206-4113|
|Lab||Young Hall 2072|
|Office Lab||(310) 206-6418|
Professor Schwartz joined the faculty at UCLA in 1997, after which he established a research program aimed at building a molecular-level picture of chemical reaction dynamics in the condensed phase. The Schwartz group is one of the few pursing both experimental and theoretical approaches to solving chemical reaction dynamics problems. The experimental techniques focus largely on femtosecond spectroscopies, and particularly 3-pulse pump-probe experiments that allow for direct examination of transient species such as the excited states of conjugated polymers or reactive solvated atoms and electrons. The theoretical techniques include both the development and application of new algorithms for dealing with the breakdown of the Born-Oppenheimer approximation in mixed quantum/classical simulations and the development of new methods for deriving the pseudopoentials used in such simulations. Prof. Schwartz has served as the department’s curriculum committee chair from 2003-2005 and has been serving as the department’s graduate advisor since 2005; Prof. Schwartz was also the department’s elected representative to the College Faculty Executive Committee from 2003-2007. Prof. Schwartz is also currently a Senior Editor for the Journal of Physical Chemistry, and serves on the advisory boards of several other journals. Prof. Schwartz has authored over 100 refereed publications during his career.
Research in the Schwartz group is aimed a building a molecular-level understanding of chemical reactivity in complex environments by studying condensed-phase chemical reaction dynamics using both experimental and theoretical techniques: femtosecond laser spectroscopies and mixed quantum/classical molecular dynamics simulations. Projects fall into two main areas: studies of how solvent motions control the rates and even the choice of products in solution-phase chemical reactions, and investigations into the electronic structure and optoelectronic behavior of semiconducting conjugated polymers.
Our first main area centers on solvent effects on chemical reactivity. We use femtosecond pump-probe spectroscopies to experimentally monitor the course of solution-phase chemical reactions in real time, allowing us to “watch” the motions of solvent molecules responding to chemical changes of reacting solutes, monitor the flow of energy between reacting species and the solvent, and identify the motion of electrons during charge transfer reactions. These experiments are accompanied by computer simulations, which make use of sophisticated algorithms allowing for quantum dynamics in the absence of the Born-Oppenheimer approximation (see Figure 1). Projects range from studies of model systems such as solvated metal anions or solvated electrons to investigations of large organic molecules with complex photochemistry. Simulations are done in close connection to the femtosecond experiments, so that experimental results drive new simulations and vice-versa, providing students in the group with an opportunity to do both experimental and theoretical work.
Our second main area of research is focused on the electronic structure of conjugated polymers, which have enormous commercial potential for use in light-emitting diodes, displays and photodetectors. Upon photoexcitation, the electrons and holes created in semiconducting polymers interact with their environment, leading to relaxation processes on multiple time scales; many of the important dynamical issues are qualitatively similar to the solution phase reactions discussed above. One of the main focuses in our group is the study of how excitations on neighboring conjugated polymer chains interact. By combining information from femtosecond and steady-state spectroscopies, scanning force microscopy, and the behavior of polymer light-emitting or photovoltaic devices, we can identify and potentially eliminate undesirable electronic properties. Projects include: studies of energy transfer and lasing behavior in inorganic/conjugated polymer composite materials (see Figure 2); studies of the electronic processes that take place in conjugated polymer/fullerene bulk heterojunction solar cells; and characterization of polymer-metal electrode interfaces using non-linear spectroscopies such as second harmonic generation. This work provides students the opportunity to learn fundamental photophysics, polymer processing techniques, and semiconductor device construction.
Honors & Awards
- Senior Editor, the Journal of Physical Chemistry
- UCLA Distinguished Teaching Award]
- Hanson-Dow Award for Excellence in Teaching
- Camille Dreyfus Teacher-Scholar
- Glenn T. Seaborg Award
- Alfred P. Sloan Foundation Research Fellow
- Research Corporation Cottrell Scholar Award
- NSF CAREER Award in Chemistry
- NSF Predoctoral Fellow
- W. R. Grace and Co. Predoctoral Fellow.
- D. A. Stanfield, Z. Mehmedović and B. J. Schwartz, “Vibrational Stark Effect Mapping of Polaron Delocalization in Chemically-Doped Conjugated Polymers,” Chem. Mater. (2021); DOI: 10.1021/acs.chemmater.1c02934.
- D. A. Stanfield, Y. Wu, S. H. Tolbert and B. J. Schwartz, “Controlling the Formation of Charge-Transfer Complexes in Chemically-Doped Semiconducting Polymers,” Chem. Mater. 33, 2343-56 (2021); DOI: 10.1021/acs.chemmater.0c04471.
- M. G. Voss, J. R. Challa, D. T. Scholes, P. Y. Yee, E. C. Wu, X. Liu, S. J. Park, O. Leon Ruiz, S. Subramaniyan, M. Chen, S. A. Jenekhe, X. Wang, S. H. Tolbert and B. J. Schwartz, “Driving Force and Optical Signatures of Bipolaron Formation in Chemically-Doped Conjugated Polymers,” Adv. Mater. 2000228, 1-7 (2020); DOI: 10.1002/adma.202000228.
- T. J. Aubry, K. J. Winchell, C. Z. Salamat, V. M. Basile, J. R. Lindemuth, J. M. Stauber, M. D. Phan, M. J. Bird, A. M. Spokoyny, S. H. Tolbert and B. J. Schwartz, “The Effects of Dopant Electron Affinity at Fixed Counterion Distance on the Production of Free Carriers in Doped Conjugated Polymers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 2001800, 1-13 (2020); DOI: 10.1002/adfm.202001800.
- A. Vong, D. R. Widmer and B. J. Schwartz, “Nonequilibrium Solvent Effects during Photodissociation in Liquids: Dynamical Energy Surfaces, Caging and Chemical Identity,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 11, 9230-8 (2020); DOI: 10.1021/acs.jpclett.0c02515.
- T. J. Aubry, J. C. Axtell, V. M. Basile, K. J. Winchell, J. R. Lindemuth, T. M. Porter, J-Y. Liu, A. N. Alexandrova, C. P. Kubiak, S. H. Tolbert, A. M. Spokoyny and B. J. Schwartz, “Dodecaborane-Based Dopants Designed to Shield Anion Electrostatics Lead to Increased Carrier Mobility in a Doped Conjugated Polymer,” Adv. Mater. 1805647, 1-8 (2019); DOI: 10.1002/adma.201805647.
- C.-C. Zho, V. Vlcek, D. Neuhauser and B. J. Schwartz, “Thermal Equilibration Controls H-Bonding and the Vertical Detachment Energy of Water Cluster Anions,” J. Chem. Phys. Lett. 9, 5173-8 (2018); DOI: 10.1021/acs.jpclett.8b02152.
- D. R. Widmer and B. J. Schwartz, “Solvents Can Control Solute Molecular Identity,” Nature Chemistry 10, 910-6 (2018); DOI: 10.1038/s41557-018-066-z.
- D. T. Scholes, P. Y. Yee, J. R. Lindemuth, H. Kang, J. Onorato, R. Ghosh, C. K. Luscombe, F. C. Spano, S. H. Tolbert and B. J. Schwartz, “The Effects of Crystallinity on Charge Transport and the Structure of Sequentially-Processed F4TCNQ-Doped Conjugated Polymer Films,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 1702654, 1-13 (2017); DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201702654.
- R. C. Huber, A. S. Ferreira, R. Thompson, D. Kilbride, N. S. Knutson, L. Sudha Devi, D. B. Toso, J. Reddy Challa, Z. Hong Zhou, Y. Rubin, B. J. Schwartz and S. H. Tolbert, “Long-lived Photoinduced Polaron Formation in Conjugated Polyelectrolyte-Fullerene Assemblies,” Science 348, 1340-3 (2015); DOI: 10.1126/science.aaa6850.