Hawthorne, M. Frederick

Professor Emeritus

Contact Information



M. Frederick Hawthorne was born in Fort Scott, Kansas and he received his elementary and secondary education in Kansas and Missouri. Prior to high school graduation, through examination he entered the Missouri School of Mines and Metallurgy, Rolla, Missouri as a chemical engineering student. He then transferred to Pomona College, Claremont, California and received a B.A. degree in chemistry. Hawthorne immediately commenced graduate work in organic chemistry at the University of California, Los Angeles, where he received his Ph.D. Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa then attracted Hawthorne as a postdoctoral associate (physical-organic chemistry) for a period of sixteen months. He joined the Rohm and Haas Company, Redstone Arsenal Research Division, Huntsville, Alabama as a Senior Research Chemist. Hawthorne launched his career in borane cluster chemistry by organizing and leading the Organometallic Chemistry Group at Rohm and Haas, Redstone. While on leave of absence from Rohm and Haas he served as a Visiting Lecturer in physical-organic chemistry at Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts. Hawthorne served as a Laboratory Head at the Rohm and Haas Co., Philadelphia, Pennsylvania and in 1962, he became a full Professor at the University of California, Riverside. He transferred to the Los Angeles campus in 1969. In 1998 he was appointed University Professor of Chemistry, the most distinguished title bestowed upon faculty by the Regents of the University of California. Hawthorne joins twenty colleagues sharing this title University-wide. 

In 2006 Hawthorne retired from UCLA and founded the International Institute of Nano and Molecular Medicine at the University of Missouri, where he is Institute Director and Curators’ Distinguished Professor of Chemistry and Radiology.

Hawthorne is the author or co-author of more than 530 research papers, 30 patents and 10 book chapters that reflect the joint efforts of approximately 200 Ph.D. students and postdoctoral associates and 11 Ph.D. coworkers at Rohm and Haas, Redstone. His students and postdoctoral associates represent 21 different countries and 35 of them now occupy academic positions. One of them was a space shuttle astronaut; Anna Lee Fisher (née Sims), M.S. (chemistry), M.D.

Honors & Awards

1963 Alfred P. Sloan Research Fellowship
1968 Chancellor's Award for Research at the University of California, Riverside.
1972 UCLA McCoy Award for Contributions to Chemistry
1973 The American Chemical Society Award in Inorganic Chemistry
1974 Honorary Sc.D. degree - Pomona College, California
1986 U. S. Air Force Meritorious Civilian Service Medal
1986 Richard C. Tolman Medal Award of the Southern California Section of the American Chemical Society
1986 Fellow of the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science
1988 First recipient of the Boron USA Award for Distinguished Achievements in Boron Chemistry
1988 American Chemical Society Award for Distinguished Service in the Advancement of Inorganic Chemistry.
1990 Alexander von Humboldt Foundation Award for Senior U.S. Scientists.
1990 Distinguished Visiting Professor - Ohio State University
1991 Bailar Medal for Achievement in Inorganic Chemistry
1992 Ph.D., honoris causa, by Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden
1993 Polyhedron Medal and Prize for Creativity in Inorganic and Organometallic Chemistry.
1994 Chemical Pioneer Award of the American Institute of Chemists
1994 Recipient of the Willard Gibbs Medal presented by the Chicago Section of the American Chemical Society.
1996 Polyhedral Borane Chemistry Award - IMEBORON International Committee on Boron Chemistry
1997 U.S. National Academy of Sciences Award in Chemical Sciences
1997 Seaborg Medal - UCLA Association of Chemists and Biochemists
1998 Centenary Lectureship - The Royal Society of Chemistry
2001 Basolo Medal of the Chicago Section of the American Chemical Society
2003 Co-winner of the King Faisal International Prize for Science
2003 Monie A. Ferst Award - Georgia Institute of Technology Chapter of Sigma Xi Society
2009 Priestley Medal - The American Chemical Society
2009 Fellow of the American Chemical Society
2009 Honored with the Missouri State Senate’s Resolution of Appreciation for Scientific Achievements.
2010 Curators’ Distinguished Professor at the University of Missouri
2011 UCLA established the annual M. Frederick Hawthorne Lecture, with Hawthorne delivering the inaugural lecture.


1973 U.S. National Academy of Sciences
1975 American Academy of Arts and Sciences
1976 Cosmos Club, Washington, D.C.
1980 American Association for the Advancement of Science
1995 Göttingen Academy of Sciences


2011539Satish S. Jalisatgi, Vikas S.Kulkarni, Betty Tang, Zachary H. Houston, Mark W. Lee, Jr. and M. Frederick Hawthorne “A Convenient Route to Diversely Substituted Icosahedral Closomer Nanoscaffolds.” Journal of the American Chemical Society, 133, 12382-12385 (2011).
 538Oleg Bondarev and M. Frederick Hawthorne “Catalytic Hydroxylation of [Closo-B(12)H(12)](2-)-Adaptation of the Periana Reaction to a Polyhedral Borane.” Chemical Communications, 47, 6978 – 6980 (2011).
 537Lalit N. Goswami, Shatadru Chakravarty, Mark W. Lee, Jr., Satish S. Jalisatgi and M. Frederick Hawthorne “Extensions of the Icosahedral Closomer Structure by Using Azide-Alkyne Click Reactions.” Angewandte Chemie International Edition in English, 50, 4689-4691 (2011).
 536Alexander V. Safronov, Satish S. Jalisatgi, Han Baek Lee, and M. Frederick Hawthorne.  “Chemical Hydrogen Storage Using Polynuclear Borane Anion Salts”, Int. J. Hydrogen Energ., 36, 234-239 (2011).
 535A. V. Safronov, M. F. Hawthorne. “Novel Synthesis of 3-iodo-ortho-carborane”, Inorg. Chim. Acta (2011), doi:10.1016/j.ica.2011.05.002.
2010534M. Frederick Hawthorne. “Advances at the Interface of Polyhedral Borane Chemistry and Medicine”, Comments on Inorganic Chemistry, 31: 3, 153 – 163 (2010).
 533Yulia Sevryugina, Richard L. Julius, and M. Frederick Hawthorne, “Novel Approach to Aminocarboranes by Mild Amidation of Selected Iodo-carboranes”, Inorg. Chem., 49, 10627-10634 (2010).
 532Steven D. Karlen, Horacio Reyes, R.E. Taylor, Saeed I. Khan, M. Frederick Hawthorne, and Miguel A. Garcia-Garibay.  “Symmetry and Dynamics of Molecular Rotors in Amphidynamic Molecular Crystals”, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 107, 14973 (2010).
2009531John D. Brockman, David .W. Nigg, M. Frederick Hawthorne, Mark W. Lee and Charles McKibben.  "Characterization of a boron neutron capture therapy beam line at the University of Missouri Research Reactor", J. Radioanal. Nucl. Chem., 282, 157-160 (2009).
 530M. Frederick Hawthorne. “Boron, My Favorite Element”, J. Chem. Educ., 86(10), 1131 (2009).
 529Robert D. Kennedy, Carolyn B. Knobler, and M. Frederick Hawthorne.  “Towards Unidirectional Rotary Motion in Nickelacarboranes: Characterization of Diastereomeric Nickel Bis(Dicarbollide) Complexes Derived from the [Nido-7-CH3-7,8-C2B9H11]– Anion”, Inorganic Chemistry, 48, 9377-9384 (2009).
 528John D. Brockman, David .W. Nigg, M. Frederick Hawthorne, and Charles McKibben.  “Spectral performance of a composite single-crystal filtered thermal neutron beam for BNCT research at the University of Missouri”, Appl. Radiat. Isot., 67, 222-225 (2009).
2008527John D. Brockman, David. W. Nigg, M. Frederick Hawthorne, and Charles. McKibben.  “A new single-crystal filtered thermal neutron beam for BNCT research at the University of Missouri”, Proceedings from the International Conference on Reactor Physics, Nuclear Power: A Sustainable Resource, Casino-Kursaal Conference Center, Interlaken, Switzerland, (2008).
 526R. L. Julius, & M. F. Hawthorne. “Amyloid Disease Prevention by Transthyretin Native State Complexation with Caroborane Derivatives Lacking Cyclooxygenase Inhibition”, Drug News and Perspectives, 21, 258 (2008).
 525Michael F. Z. Page, Satish S. Jalisatgi, Andreas Maderna and M. Frederick Hawthorne, “Design and Synthesis of a Candidate α-Human Thrombin Irreversible Inhibitor Containing a Hydrophobic Carborane Pharmacophore”, Synthesis, No. 4, 555-563 (2008).
2007524D. Scott Wilbur, Ming-Kuan Chyan, Donald K. Hamlin, Robert L. Vesslla, Timothy J. Wedge, and M. Frederick Hawthorne. “Reagents for Astatination of Biomolecules. 2. Conjunction of Anionic Boron Cage Pendant Groups to a Protein Provides a Method for Direct Labeling that is Stable to in Vivo Deastatination”, Bioconjugate Chem., 18, 1126-1240 (2007).
 523Omar K. Farha, Alexander M. Spokoyny, M. Frederick Hawthorne, Karen L. Mulfort, Chad A. Mirkin and Joseph T. Hupp, “Synthesis and Hydrogen Sorption of Carborane-based Met-organic Framework Materials”, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 129(42), 12680-12681 (2007).
 522Zhu Yinghuai, Effendi Widaja, Shirley Lo Pei Sia, Wang Zhan, Keith Carpenter, John A. Maguire, Narayan S. Hosmane, and M. Frederick Hawthorne, “Ruthenium(0) Nanoparticle-Catalyzed Isotope Exchange between 10B and 11B Nuclei in Decaborane(14)”, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 129, 6507 (2007).
 521Bradley W. Schuller, Arlin B. Rogers, Kathleen S. Cormier, Kent J. Riley, Peter J. Beinns,Richard Julius, M. Frederick Hawthorne, and Jeffrey A. Coderre, “No Significant Endothelial Apoptosis in the Radiation-Induced Gastrointestinal Syndrome”, Int. J. Radiation Oncology Biol. Phys., 68, 205 (2007).
 520Richard L. Julius, Omar K. Farha, Janet Chiang, L. Jeanne Perry, and M. Frederick Hawthorne,“Synthesis and Evaluation of Transthyretin Amyloidosis Inhibitors Containing Carborane Pharmacophores”, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 104, 4808 (2007).
 519Mark W. Lee, Omar K. Farha, M. Frederick Hawthorne, and Corwin H. Hansch, “Alkoxy Derivatives of Dodecaborate: Discrete Nanomolecular Ions with Tunable Pseudometallic Properties”, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed., 46, 3018 (2007).
2006518M. Frederick Hawthorne, Bhaskar M. Ramachandran, Robert D. Kennedy, Carolyn B. Knobler, “Approaches to Rotary Molecular Motors”, Proceedings of the Twelfth International Meeting on Boron Chemistry (IMEBORON XII), Pure Appl. Chem., 78, 1299-1304 (2006).
2005517Bradley W. Schuller. Peter J. Binns. Kent J. Riley, Ling Ma, Frederick Hawthorne, and Jeffrey A. Coderre, “ Selective Irradiation of the Vascular Endothelium Has No Effect on the Survival of Murine Intestinal Crypt Stem Cells”, Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. 103 (10), 3787-3792 (2005).
 516Omar K. Farha, Richard L. Julius, M. Frederick Hawthorne, “Synthesis of a Homotrifunctional Conjugation Reagent Based on Maleimide Chemistry”, Tetrahedron Letters, 47, 2619-2622 (2005).
 515Tiejun Li, Julie Hamdi, and M. Frederick Hawthorne, “Unilamellar Liposomes with Enhanced Boron Content”, Bioconj. Chem., 17, 15-20 (2005).
 514Bhaskar M. Ramachandran and M. Frederick Hawthorne, "Synthesis and Structural Characterization of Symmetrical Closo-4,7-I 2-1,2-C2B10H10 and [(CH3)3NH][nido-2,4-I 2-7,8-C2B9H10]", Inorg. Chem., 45, 336-340 (2005).
 513Tiejun Li, Satish S. Jalisatgi, Michael J. Bayer, Andreas Maderna, Saeed I. Khan, and M. Frederick Hawthorne, “Organic Syntheses on an Icosahedral Borane Surface: Closomer Structures with Twelvefold Functionality”, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 127, 17832-17841 (2005).
 512Ling Ma, Julie Hamdi, Frances Wong, and M. Frederick Hawthorne, “Closomers of High Boron Content: Synthesis, Characterization, and Potential Application as Unimolecular Nanoparticle Delivery Vehicles for BNCT”, Inorg. Chem.,45, 278-285 (2005).
 511Omar K. Farha, Richard L. Julius, Mark W. Lee, Ramon E. Huertas, Carolyn B. Knobler, and M. Frederick Hawthorne, “Synthesis of Stable Dodeca-(alkoxy) Derivatives of Hypercloso-B12H12”, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 127(51), 18243-18251 (2005).
 510Bhaskar M. Ramachandran, Carolyn B. Knobler, and M. Frederick Hawthorne, “Example of an Intramolecular, Non-classical C-H--pHydrogen Bonding Interaction in an Arylcarborane Derivative”, J. Mol. Struct. (2005).
 509Ling Ma, Julie Hamdi, Jiaxing Huang, and M. Frederick Hawthorne, “Camouflaged Carborane Amphiphiles: Synthesis and Self-assembly”, Inorg. Chem., 44, 7249-7258 (2005).
 508Hershel Jude, Hendrik Disteldorf, Sonja Fischer, Timothy J. Wedge, Adam M. Hawkridge, Atta M. Arif, M. Frederick Hawthorne, David C. Muddiman, and Peter J. Stang, “Coordination Driven Self-assemblies with a Carborane Backbone”, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 127, 12131-12139 (2005).

Axel Herzog, Satish S. Jalisatgi, Carolyn B. Knobler, Timothy J. Wedge, and M. Frederick Hawthorne, “Camouflaged Carborarods Derived from B-permethyl-1,12-diethynyl-para-and B-octamethyl-1,7-diethynyl-meta-carborane Modules”, Chem. Eur. J11, 7155-7174 (2005).


Michael J. Bayer, Satish S. Jalisatgi, Brian Smart, Axel Herzog, Carolyn B. Knobler, and M. Frederick Hawthorne, “B-Octamethyl-[12]Mercuracarborand–4 as Host for “Naked” Fluoride Ions”, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed.116, 1890-1893 (2004)


D. Scott Wilbur, Ming-Kuan Chyan, Donald K. Hamlin, Brian B. Kegley, Ruedi Risler, Pradip M. Pathare, Janna Quinn, Robert L. Vessella, Catherine Foulon, Michael Zalutsky, Timothy J. Wedge, and M. Frederick Hawthorne, “Reagents for Astatination of Biomolecules. Comparison of the In Vivo Distribution and Stability of Some Radioiodinated and Astatinated Benzamidyl- and nido-Carboranyl Compounds”, Bioconj. Chem., 15, 203-223 (2004).



M. Frederick Hawthorne, Jeffrey I. Zink, Johnny M. Skelton, Michael J. Bayer, Chris Liu, Ester Livshits, Roi Baer, and Daniel Neuhauser, “Electrical or Photocontrol of the Rotary Motion of a Metallacarborane”, Science303, 1849-1851 (2004). [pdf]



Timothy J. Wedge, Axel Herzog, Ramón Huertas, Mark W. Lee, Carolyn B. Knobler and M. Frederick Hawthorne, “Metal-Metal Communication Through Carborane Cages Supporting Electroactive [h5-CpFe(CO)2] Substituents”, Organometallics, 23, 482 (2004).



Michael J. Bayer and M. Frederick Hawthorne, “An Improved Method for the Synthesis of [Closo-B12(OH)12]2-,” Inorg. Chem., 43, 2018-2020 (2004).



Tiejun Li, Jason Thomas, and M. Frederick Hawthorne, “Liposomes from Novel Carborane-containing Lipids for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy”, Abstract of papers, 225 th Annual ACS meeting, March 25, 2003. (2003).



Sean L. Johnston, Mark W. Lee, and M. Frederick Hawthorne, “Development of Cell-surface Protein Targeted CT and MR Contrast Agents”, Applied Radiology (Supplement), 70-77 (2003).



M. Frederick Hawthorne, “New Discoveries at the Interface of Boron and Carbon Chemistries,” Pure Appl. Chem.75, 1157 (2003).[pdf]



M. Frederick Hawthorne, “Some Biomedical Applications of Aromatic Polyhedral Boranes and Their Progeny,” Special Publication of the King Faisal Foundation Honoring the King Faisal International Prize in Science 2003 (2003).



M. F Frederick Hawthorne, Satish Jalisatgi, Cynthia L. Beno, David E. Harwell and Carolyn B. Knobler, “Intra and Intermolecular Hydrogen Bonding in Some Cobaltacarboranes”, J. Mol. Struct., 656, 239-247 (2003).



M. Frederick Hawthorne and Mark W. Lee, “A Critical Assessment of Boron Target Compounds for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy”, J. Neuro-Oncol., 62, 33-45 (2003).



Yinghuai Zhu, Keith Carpenter, Ching Chi Bun, Stefan Bahnmueller, Chan Pek Ke, Venugopal    Shanmugham Srid, Leong Weng Kee, and M. Frederick Hawthorne, “(R)–Binap-Mediated Asymmetric Hydrogenation Using a Rhodacarborane Catalyst in Ionic Liquid Media,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. , 42, 3792 (2003).



Michael J. Bayer, Axel Herzog, Martin Diaz, George A. Harakas, Hans Lee, Carolyn B. Knobler, and M. Frederick Hawthorne, “The Synthesis of Carboracycles Derived from B,B`-Bis(aryl) Derivatives of Icosahedral ortho-Carborane,” Chem. Eur. J., 9, 2732 (2003). [pdf]

 494Timothy J. Wedge and M. Frederick Hawthorne, “Multidentate Carborane-Containing Lewis Acids and Their Chemistry:Mercuracarborands,” Coord. Chem. Rev.  240, 111 (2003). [pdf]



M. Frederick Hawthorne, “Further Advances at the Interface of Boron and Carbon Chemistries,” Proceedings of the Eleventh International Conference on Boron Chemistry, Published by the A. Nesmeyanov Institute of Organoelement Compounds, Russian Academy of Sciences, Y. N. Bubanov, Editor., Moscow, Russia (2002).



Andreas Maderna Ramon Huertas, M. Frederick Hawthorne, Raymond Luguya, and M. Graca H. Vicente, “Synthesis of a Porphyrin-labeled Carboranyl Phosphate Diester: A Potential New Drug for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy,” Chem. Comm. 16, 1784(2002).



M. Frederick Hawthorne, Kenneth Shelly, and Fangbiao Li, “Versatile Chemistry of the [B20H18]2- Ions: Novel Reactions and Structural Motifs,” Chem. Comm., 547(2002).



Mark B. Smuckler, Satish S. Jalisatgi, Lufeng Guan, Akira Nakanishi, Harumi Kasamatsu, and M. Frederick Hawthorne, “Boron-RichOligomeric Phosphate Diesters that Target the Cell Nucleus In Vitro,” Frontiers in Neutron Capture Therapy, Vol.2, M. Frederick Hawthorne, Kenneth Shelly and Richard J. Wiersema, Editors.  Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers: New York,  New York, 1103(2001).



Fangbiao Li, Kenneth Shelly, Carolyn B. Knobler and M. Frederick Hawthorne, “Benzoquinone Oxidation of the [ae-B20H17NH3]3- and [ae-B20H17OH]4- Ions,” Frontiers in Neutron Capture Therapy, Vol.2, M. Frederick Hawthorne, Kenneth Shelly, and Richard J.Wiersema, Editors.  Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers: New York,  New York, 807 (2001).



Toralf Peymann, Kenneth Shelly and M. Frederick Hawthorne, “Recent Developments in the Chemistry of [B12H12]2-,” Frontiers in Neutron Capture Therapy, Vol.2, M. Frederick Hawthorne, Kenneth Shelly and Richard J. Wiersema, Editors.  KluwerAcademic/Plenum Publishers: New York, New York, 775 (2001).


Toralf Peymann, Carolyn B. Knobler, Saeed I. Khan and M. Frederick Hawthorne, “Dodecahydroxy-closo-dodecaborate (2-),” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 123, 2182 (2001).



K.J. Stelzer, P. R. Gavin, R. Risler, H. Kippenes, M. F. Hawthorne, D.W. Nigg and G. E. Laramore, “Boron Neutron Capture-Enhanced Fast Neutron Therapy (BNC/FNT) for Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer in Canine Patients,” Frontiers in Neutron Capture Therapy, Vol.1, M. Frederick Hawthorne, Kenneth Shelly and Richard J. Wiersema, Editors.  Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers: New York, New York, 735 (2001).



Axel Herzog, Carolyn B. Knobler and M. Frederick Hawthorne,  “Synthesis, Structure and Reactivity of closo-2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10,11-decahydroxy-1,12-bis-(sulfonicacid)-1,12-dicarbadodecaborane (12),” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 123, 12791 (2001).



Andreas Maderna, Axel Herzog Carolyn B. Knobler and M. Frederick Hawthorne, “The Syntheses of Amphiphilic CamouflagedCarboranes as Modules for Supramolecular Construction,” J. Am. Chem. Soc123, 10423 (2001).



M. Frederick Hawthorne, “Obituary:  Donald J. Cram (1919-2001),” Nature 412, 696 (2001).



George E. Laramore, K.J. Stelzer, R. Risler, J.L. Schwartz, J.J. Douglas, J.P. Einck, D.W. Nigg, C.A. Wemple, J.K. Hartwell, Y.D.Harker, Patrick R. Gavin and M. Frederick Hawthorne,  “Neutron Capture Therapy (NCT) Enhancement of Fast Neutron Radiotherapy:  Application to Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer,” Proceedings of the Sixteenth International Conference on Application of Accelerators in Research and Industry, J.L. Duggan and I.L. Morgan, Editors. American Institute of Physics (2001).



Jason Thomas and M. Frederick Hawthorne, “Dodeca(carboranyl)-substituted Closomers: Toward Unimolecular Nanoparticles as Delivery Vehicles for BNCT,” Chem. Comm.1884 (2001).



Theodore W. Bitner, Timothy J. Wedge, M. Frederick Hawthorne and Jeffrey I. Zink, “Synthesis and Luminescence Spetroscopy of a Series of [h5-CpFe(CO)2] Complexes Containing 1,12-Dicarba-closo-dodecaboranyl  and -ylene Ligands,” Inorg. Chem. 40, 5428 (2001).



Hans Lee, Carolyn B. Knobler and M. Frederick Hawthorne, “A Hydrogen Bonded [(Mercuracarborand-Water)2-Benzene] p-Sandwich Complex,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 40, 3058 (2001).



Hans Lee, Carolyn B. Knobler and M. Frederick Hawthorne, “Octahedral Coordination of Halide Ions (I-, Br-, Cl-) Sandwich Bonded with Tridentate Mercuracarborand-3 Receptors,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 123, 8543 (2001).



Hans Lee, Carolyn B. Knobler and M. Frederick Hawthorne, “Modular Self-Assembly of A Microporous Solid Based upon Mercuracarborand-4 and A New Bonding Motif,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 40, 2124 (2001).



Axel Herzog, Ryan P. Callahan, Charles L.B. Macdonald, Vincent M. Lynch, M. Frederick Hawthorne and Richard J. Lagow, “APerfluorinated Nanosphere: Synthesis and Structure of Perfluoro-deca-B-methyl-para-carborane,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 40, 2121 (2001).



Toralf Peymann, Carolyn Knobler, Saeed I. Khan and M. Frederick Hawthorne, “Dodeca(benzyloxy)dodecaborane,B12(OCH2Ph)12: A Stable Derivative of hypercloso-B12H12,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 40, 1664 (2001). [pdf]



Andreas Maderna, Carolyn Knobler and M. Frederick Hawthorne, “Twelvefold Functionalization of an Icosahedral Surface by TotalEsterification of [B12(OH)12]2-: 12(12)-Closomers,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 40, 1661 (2001). [pdf]



Toralf Peymann, Carolyn B. Knobler, Saeed I. Khan and M. Frederick Hawthorne, “Dodecamethyl-closo-dodecaborate(2-),” Inorg. Chem. 40, 1291 (2001). [pdf]



Hans Lee, Carolyn B. Knobler and M. Frederick Hawthorne, “Supramolecular Self-Assembly Directed by Carborane C-H¼F Interactions,” Chem. Comm24, 2485 (2000).



Ibrahim H.A. Badr, R. Daniel Johnson, Martin Diaz, M. Frederick Hawthorne and Leonidas G.      Bachas, “A Selective Optical Sensor Based on [9]Mercuracarborand-3, A New Type of Ionopore with a Chloride Complexing Cavity,” Anal. Chem., 72, 4249 (2000).



Juston J. Rockwell, Axel Herzog, Toralf Peymann, Carolyn B. Knobler and M. Frederick  Hawthorne, “Recent Advances in the Field of Camouflaged Carboranes and Polyhedral Boranes,” Current Sci.78, 405 (2000).



Hans Lee, Martin Diaz, Carolyn Knobler and M. Frederick Hawthorne, “Octahedral Coordination of Iodide in an ElectrophilicSandwich,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed.39, 776 (2000).



Toralf Peymann, Carolyn B. Knobler and M. Frederick Hawthorne, “A Study of the Sequential Acid-Catalyzed Hydroxylation ofDodecahydro-closo-Dodecaborate(2-),” Inorg. Chem., 39, 1163 (2000).



M. Frederick Hawthorne, “Broadening the Conflux of Boron and Carbon Chemistries,”  Proceedings of the Tenth International Conference on Boron Chemistry, Contemporary Boron Chemistry, Edited by M. Davidson, A.K. Hughes, T.B. Marder and K. Wade, Royal Society of Chemistry:  Cambridge, 197 (2000).



Weilin Chen, Martin Diaz, Juston Rockwell, Carolyn B. Knobler and M. Frederick Hawthorne,   “Synthesis and Characterization of Water-Soluble Boron-Substituted Ortho-Carborane Derivatives,” Comptes Rendus de l’Académie des Sciences – Série IIc –Chemie3, 223 (2000).