Kaner, Richard B.


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Division
Inorganic
Title
Faculty
Distinguished Professor
Specialties
inorganic
Materials
Nanoscience

Contact Information

Email
Office
Molecular Sciences Building 2515
(310) 825-5346
Lab
Molecular Sciences Building 2220
(310) 206-8393

Short Biography

Professor Kaner received his Ph.D. in Chemistry in 1984 from the University of Pennsylvania. He is also a member of the following professional societies: Fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science; Associate Editor for Materials Research Bulletin; member of the American Chemical Society; the Electrochemical Society; and the Materials Research Society.

Research Interest

1. Conducting Polymers:
 

Kaner group is interested in all aspects of conducting polymers, ranging from the fundamental science of these materials to their development for a wide variety of applications. The information provided here is a small glimpse into our research.

Synthesis, Properties, and Processing of Nanostructured Conducting Polymers:

Nanostructured conducting polymers possess many advantageous properties over conventional, bulk counterparts. Since the properties of nanomaterials are highly dependent on their size, shape, and alignment over a macroscopic area, controlling these factors for nanoscale conducting polymers is of great importance. The Kaner group is interested in controlling these parameters without the aid of traditional external templates such as surfactants or nanoporous membranes. This process exploits the fact that conducting polymers have a predisposition to form certain nanoscale shapes under specific synthetic conditions. Ultimately, the goal is to develop a methodology that can produce conducting polymers of virtually any nanoscale size or shape. From this, we can begin to investigate morphology-property relationships and to integrate these new materials into devices.

Applications:

1. Composite Materials of Conducting Polymers
Conducting polymers can be used as a platform to create polymer/organic or polymer/inorganic composites. These composite materials often exhibit enhanced properties or superior device performance as compared to pure conducting polymers. For example, composite materials of polyaniline/metal nanoparticles can be fabricated by exploiting the simple redox chemistry of polyaniline. The composites are a highly effective material in a wide variety of applications such as chemical sensors, molecular memory, or catalysis.

2. Chemical Sensors
The development of high-performance chemical sensors is receiving increased interest due to its importance in environmental protection and homeland security. We have demonstrated that polyaniline nanofibers exhibit superior sensing performance compared to bulk films, indicating that conducting polymer nanofibers are good candidates for chemical sensing. A systematic investigation into the response of conducting polymer nanofibers to a series of toxic industrial gases and chemical is currently under investigation.

3. Memory Devices and High Density Electronics (in Collaboration with Prof. Yang Yang)
Using the decorated nanofibers as an active layer sandwiched between two aluminum electrodes, we have recently discovered that Au/polyaniline nanofibers possess a remarkable property--electrically switchable bistability, which is ideal for nonvolatile, flash memory devices. The device can be switched from the off- to the on- state at ≥3V with a switching time of ~15 nanoseconds. This produces an abrupt increase in current of more than three orders of magnitude. The device can be switched back to the off-state at ≤-5 V. The device is stable in both states and switching between these two states can be repeated numerous times without any obvious decay. In this project, we will explore the important features of this material and then seek to develop a prototype high-density, high-performance nonvolatile/flash memory circuit.

4. Actuators (in Collaboration with Qeibing Pei)
For decades, engineers who build actuators (motion-generating devices) have sought an artificial equivalent of muscle. Simply by changing their length in response to nerve stimulation, muscles can exert controlled amounts of force sufficient to blink an eyelid or hoist a barbell. During the last fifteen years

5. Graphene:
The Kaner group has a large research effort in a new and exciting material called graphene. Interest in graphene stems from a number of extraordinary properties including high charge carrier mobility, thermal conductivity, and mechanical strength. These are primarily the result of high symmetry and high crystal quality in graphene’s two-dimensional lattice of sp2 hybridized carbon. Our interests range from new syntheses to graphene-based devices for the next generation of integrated circuits and solar cells.


Solution Processing of Chemically Derived Graphene -
Our group helped to pioneer the first solution-based method for the large-scale production of graphene. Through a process of oxidation and exfoliation of graphite, we are able to create stable dispersions of single sheets that can be reduced back to graphene before deposition. This gives us research access to large graphene flakes without the need for the laborious mechanical exfoliation techniques often employed by other researchers.

6. Transparent Conductors

Optical-electronic devices including LEDs and solar cells have become an important part of reducing power consumption and a reliance on fossil fuels. One of the most challenging part of engineering such devices is the top electrode, which must be both conductive enough to pass current and transparent enough to allow photons in or out of the device. Currently, the industry standard for transparent conductors is indium tin oxide (ITO), which is capable of less than 100 ohms/square at 90% transmittance in the visible range. However, ITO has several limitations that may preclude its widespread use in the near future. These include brittleness and the need for vacuum-based deposition. Graphene may offer a highly scalable and cheap substitute, especially because each layer absorbs just 2.3% of incident light. While this work continues with great intensity, our first efforts yielded graphene-based transparent films with resistivity less than 1000 ohms/square at 90% transmittance.

7. Superhard Materials:
Superhard materials are used in many applications, from cutting and polishing tools to wear-resistant coatings. Diamond remains the hardest known material, despite years of synthetic and theoretical efforts to improve upon it. Designing new superhard materials are not only of great scientific interest, but also could be very useful. The Kaner group in collaboration with the Tolbert group has demonstrated that valence electron density and bond covalency can be used as design parameters for creating superhard, ultra-incompressible materials. Using these design parameters we have synthesized both hard and superhard materials.

8.  Thermoelectric materials:
Thermoelectric based devices convert a temperature gradient into power (Seebeck effect) or generate a temperature gradient upon electrical input (Peltier effect). (insert graphic on TE effects). In order to gauge the thermal to electric efficiency of a material, the The dimensionless thermoelectric figure of merit (ZT) is used and is given by ZT = S2T/ρλ. Where, S, is the Seebeck coefficient, ρ, is the electrical resistivity, T is the absolute temperature, and λ, is the thermal conductivity. Since the three terms are interdependent (any change in one parameter will affect the others), for the past 50 years, the average ZT over the entire temperature range has remained stagnant at a ZT of 1. It has been theorized that nanoinclusions could enhance ZT by reducing the thermal conductivity via interface scattering. Recent experimental work at UCLA, in collaboration at the Fleurial-Caillat group at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, CA and Dresselhaus-Chen group at MIT demonstrates that similar effects can be achieved in densified nanoscale bulk materials via sintering of large scale quantities of nanostructured materials.

 

Read More About Dr. Kaner's Research >>

Honors & Awards

  • UCLA UCLA Gold Shield Faculty Prize (2002-2004)
  • 2012 ACS Award in the Chemistry of Materials
  • Eka-Granules Lecturer University of Tasmania
  • Visiting Professor University of Wollongong
  • American Chemical Society Buck Whitney Research Award
  • Dreyfus Teacher-Scholar
  • National Science Foundation Presidential Young Investigator
  • American Chemical Society Member
  • Electrochemical Society Member
  • Materials Research Bulletin Associate Editor
  • Materials Research Society Member
  • American Association for the Advancement of Science Fellow
  • Packard Fellow (1989-1994)
  • Australian-American Fulbright Fellow
  • Guggenheim Fellow
  • Sloan Fellow
  • American Chemical Society Exxon Fellowship in Solid State Chemistry

Publications


(1977-1982)
 
1.   R.B. Kaner, C.A. Castro, R.P. Grusko and A. Wold, "Preparation and characterization of the platinum metal phosphides RuP2 and IrP2," Mat. Res. Bull., 12, 1143-1147 (1977).
 
2.   R. Collins, R.B. Kaner, P. Russo, A. Wold and D. Avignant, "High pressure phase transformation of platinum sulfide," Inorg. Chem., 18, 727-729 (1979).
 
3.   J.D. Passaretti, R.B. Kaner, R. Kershaw and A. Wold, "Synthesis of poorly crystallized platinum metal dichalcogenides," Inorg. Chem., 20, 501-503 (1981).
 
4.   J.H. Kaufman, J.W. Kaufer, A.J. Heeger, R.B. Kaner and A.G. MacDiarmid,  "Electrochemical voltage spectroscopy of trans-(CH)x," Phys. Rev. B, 26, 2327-2330 (1982).
 
 
(1983-1985)
 
5.   J.H. Kaufman, E.F. Mele, A.J. Heeger, R.B. Kaner and A.G. MacDiarmid, "Electric field enhanced diffusion in trans-(CH)x," J. Electrochem. Soc., 130, 571-574 (1983).
 
6.   A.G. MacDiarmid, R.B. Kaner, M. Maxfield, D.P. Nairns, P.J. Nigrey and A.J. Heeger,  "Lightweight rechargeable batteries using polyacetylene, (CH)x, as the cathode-and/or anode-active material," in Energy Technology X, A Decade of Progress, R.F. Hill, ed. (Government Institutes, Inc., 1983) pp. 675-680.
 
7.   A.G. MacDiarmid, R.B. Kaner, R.J. Mammone and A.J. Heeger, "The aqueous and non-aqueous electrochemistry of polyacetylene: Application in high power density rechargeable batteries," J. de Physique, 44, C3-543-550 (1983).
 
8.   J.H Kaufman, A.J. Heeger, R.B. Kaner, E.J. Mele and A.G. MacDiarmid, "Electric field enhanced diffusion in polyacetylene," J. de Physique, 44, C3-577-578 (1983).
 
9.   R.B. Kaner, A.G. MacDiarmid and R.J. Mammone, "Polyacetylene, (CH)x: An electrode-active material in aqueous and non-aqueous electrolytes," in Polymers in Electronics, T. Davidson, ed. (American Chemical Society, Washington, D.C., Series No. 242, 1984) pp. 575-584.
 
10. R.B. Kaner and A.G. MacDiarmid, "Electrochemistry of polyacetylene, (CH)x: Characteristics of the reduced polyacetylene electrode," J. Chem. Soc., Faraday Trans. I, 80, 2109-2118 (1984).
 
11. S. Lefrant, P. Bernier and R.B. Kaner,  "An in situ Raman study after n-doping of a cis-rich polyacetylene electrode in an electrochemical cell," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., 23, L883-885 (1984).
 
12. J. Caja, R.B. Kaner and A.G. MacDiarmid,  "A rechargeable battery employing a reduced polyacetylene anode and a titanium disulfide cathode," J. Electrochem. Soc., 131, 2744-2750 (1984).
13. A.G. MacDiarmid, R.J. Mammone, R.B. Kaner and S.J. Porter,  "The concept of 'doping' of conducting polymers:  The role of reduction potentials,"Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. A., 314, 3-14 (1985).
 
14. S. Lefrant, P. Bernier, R.B. Kaner and A.G. MacDiarmid, "In situ Raman and EPR investigation of a cis-(CH)x electrode," Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst.,121, 233-236 (1985).
 
 
(1986-1988)
 
15. A.G. MacDiarmid and R.B. Kaner, "Electrochemistry of polyacetylene: Application to rechargeable batteries," in Handbook of Conducting Polymers, T. Skotheim, ed. (Marcel Dekker, Inc., N.Y., 1986) pp. 689-726.
 
16. R.B. Kaner and A.G. MacDiarmid, "Reversible electrochemical reduction of polyacetylene, (CH)x," Synth. Met., 14, 3-12 (1986).
 
17. R.B. Kaner, J. Kouvetakis and S.G. Mayorga, "Structure of chloro(h5-pentamethylcyclopentadienyl)bis(trimethylphosphine)iridium(III) hexa-fluorophosphate," Acta Cryst., C42, 500-501 (1986).
 
18. R.B. Kaner, S.J. Porter and A.G. MacDiarmid,  "The electrochemical reduction of polyacetylene with selected reducing agents," J. Chem. Soc., Faraday Trans. I, 82, 2323-2332 (1986).
 
19. J. Kouvetakis, R.B. Kaner, M.L. Sattler and N. Bartlett,  "A novel graphite-like material of composition BC3 and nitrogen-carbon graphites," J. Chem. Soc., Chem. Commun., 1758-1759 (1986).
 
20. R.B. Kaner, J. Kouvetakis, C.E. Warble, M.L. Sattler and N. Bartlett, "Boron-carbon-nitrogen materials of graphite-like structure," Mat. Res. Bull., 22, 399-404 (1987).
 
21. R.B. Kaner, "The electrochemistry of reduced polyacetylene," in Electronic Materials and Processes, N.H. Kordsmeier, Jr., C.A. Harper and S.M. Lee, eds. (Society for the Advancement of Material and Process Engineering, 1987) pp. 188-198.
 
22. R.B. Kaner and A.G. MacDiarmid,  "Plastics that conduct electricity," Scientific American, 258, 106-111 (1988).  Featured on cover.
 
 
(1989-1990)
 
23. R.B. Kaner, S.-M. Huang, C.-H. Lin and J.H. Kaufman, "Chemical reduction of polyacetylene with incorporation of divalent dopant cations," Synth. Met., 28, D115-125 (1989).
 
24. R.B. Kaner, S.J. Porter, D.P. Nairns and A.G. MacDiarmid, "The application of electrochemistry to the measurement of selected intrinsic physical properties of polyacetylene," J. Chem. Phys., 90, 5102-5107 (1989).
 
25. S.-M. Huang and R.B. Kaner,  "Divalent dopant ions for conducting polymers," in Reactivity of Solids-I, M.S. Whittingham, S. Bernasek, A.J. Jacobson, A. Navrotsky, eds. (Elsevier Science Publishers, pgs. 575-581 (1989).  (Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 1989); and Sol. St. Ionics, 32/33, 575-581 (1989).
 
26. R.B. Kaner, "Preparation and properties of electrochemically synthesized polymers," in Electrochemical Science and Technology of Polymers-2, R.G. Linford, ed., (Elsevier Applied Science, Essex, England, 1990) pp. 97-147.
 
27. P.R. Bonneau, R.K. Shibao and R.B. Kaner, "Low-temperature precursor synthesis of crystalline nickel disulfide," Inorg. Chem., 29, 2511-2514 (1990).
 
28. J.H. Kaufman, S.-M. Huang, R.K. Shibao and R.B. Kaner, "Spinless charge carriers in divalent cation doped polyacetylene," Solid St. Commun., 74, 1217-1220 (1990).
 
29. E.T. Knobbe, B. Dunn, P.D. Fuqua, F. Nishida, R.B. Kaner and B.M. Pierce, "Third-order nonlinear optical effects in polyaniline doped silica films via the sol-gel technique,” Ceram. Trans., 14, 137-150 (1990).  (14 pages)
 
30. R.B. Kaner, "Conducting polymer," 1991 McGraw-Hill Yearbook of Science and Technology  (McGraw-Hill, Inc., New York, 1990) pp. 69-71.
 
31. F. Nishida, B. Dunn, E.T. Knobbe, P.D. Fuqua, R.B. Kaner and B.R. Mattes, "Incorporation of polyaniline into a silica gel via the sol-gel technique," Mat. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc., 180, 747-752 (1990).
 
 
(1991)
 
32. J.I. Zink, B. Dunn, R.B. Kaner, E.T. Knobbe and J. McKiernan, "Inorganic sol-gel glasses as matrices for NLO materials," in Materials for Nonlinear Optics: Chemical Perspectives, G.D. Stucky, S.R. Marder, and J.E. Sohn, eds. (American Chemical Society, Washington, D.C., Series No. 455, 1991) pp. 541-552.
 
33. S.M. Huang and R.B. Kaner, "Highly charged dopant ions for polyacetylene," in Inorganic and Organic Polymers,  J. Sheats, ed. (Plenum Press, New York, 1991) pp. 87-99.
 
34. P.R. Bonneau, R.F. Jarvis and R.B. Kaner, "Rapid solid-state synthesis of materials from molybdenum disulphide to refractories," Nature, 349, 510-512 (1991). Featured on cover.
 
35. S.-M. Huang and R.B. Kaner, "Be+2, Mg+2 and Al+3 n-dopants for polyacetylene," Synth.  Met., 41, 101-105 (1991).
 
36. M. R. Anderson, B.R. Mattes, H. Reiss and R.B. Kaner, "Gas separation membranes:  A novel application for conducting polymers," Synth. Met., 41, 1151-1154 (1991).
 
37. K. Holczer, O. Klein, S.-M. Huang, R.B. Kaner, K.-J. Fu, R.L. Whetten and F. Diederich, "Alkali-fulleride superconductors: synthesis, composition  and diamagnetic shielding," Science, 252, 11541157 (1991).
 
38. B.R. Mattes, E.T. Knobbe, P.D. Fuqua, F. Nishida, E.-W. Chang, B.M. Pierce, B. Dunn and R.B. Kaner, "Polyaniline sol-gels and their third-order nonlinear optical properties," Synth. Met., 43, 3183-3192 (1991).
 
39. M. R. Anderson, B.R. Mattes, H. Reiss and R.B. Kaner, "Conjugated polymer films for gas separations," Science, 252, 1412-1415 (1991).
 
40. E.-W. Chang and R.B. Kaner, "A boron-nitrogen conducting polymer," Synth. Met., 43, 3075-3078 (1991).
 
41. P.W. Stephens, L. Mihaly, P.L. Lee, R.L. Whetten, S.-M. Huang, F. Diederich, R.B. Kaner and K. Holczer, "Structure of single-phase superconducting K3C60," Nature, 351, 632-634 (1991).
 
42. G. Sparn, J.D. Thompson, S.-M. Huang, R. B. Kaner, F. Diederich, R.L. Whetten, G. Gruner and K. Holczer, "Pressure dependence of super-conductivity in single-phase K3C60," Science, 252, 1829-1832 (1991).
 
43. R.B. Kaner, "Polymer films-designing a slow leak," Nature, 352, 23 (1991).
 
44. Y.J. Uemura, A. Keren, L.P. Le, G.M. Luke, B.J. Sternlieb, W.D. Wu, J.H. Brewer, R.L. Whetten, S.-M. Huang, S. Lin, R.B. Kaner, F. Diederich, S. Donovan, G. Gruner and K. Holczer, "Magnetic-field penetration depth in K3C60 measured by muon spin relaxation," Nature, 352, 605-607 (1991).
 
45. M.M. Alvarez, E.G. Gillan, K. Holczer, R.B. Kaner, K.S. Min and R.L. Whetten, "La2C80: a soluble dimetallofullerene," J. Phys. Chem., 95, 10561-10563 (1991).
 
 
(1992)
 
46. P.W. Stephens, L. Mihaly, J.B. Wiley, S.-M. Huang, R.B. Kaner, F. Diederich, R.L. Whetten and K. Holczer, "Structure of Rb:C60 compounds," Phys. Rev. B., 45, 543-546 (1992).
47. R.E. Treece, G.S. Macala and R.B. Kaner, "Rapid synthesis of GaP and GaAs from solid-state precursors," Chem. Mater., 4, 9-11 (1992).
 
48. W.H. Wong, M. Hanson, W.G. Clark, K. Holczer, G. Gruner, J.D. Thompson, R.L. Whetten, S.-M. Huang, R.B. Kaner, F. Diederich,  P. Petit and  J.-J Andre, "Normal state magnetic properties of K3C60," Europhys. Lett., 18, 79-84 (1992).
 
49. J.B. Wiley and R.B. Kaner, "Rapid solid-state precursor synthesis of materials," Science, 255, 1093-1097 (1992).
 
50. G. Sparn, J.D. Thompson, R.L. Whetten, S.-M. Huang, R.B. Kaner, F. Diederich, G. Gruner and K. Holczer, "Pressure and field dependence of superconductivity in Rb3C60," Phys. Rev. Lett., 68, 1228-1231 (1992).
 
51. J.B. Wiley, S.-M. Huang, S. Cho, F. Diederich, R.L. Whetten, K. Holczer and R.B. Kaner, "Structure and properties of superconducting and nonsuperconducting alkali-metal fullerides AxC60 (A=Na, K, Rb, or Cs),"   Macromol. Chem., 59, 389-397 (1992).
 
52. S.J. Kramer, M.W. Colby, J.D. MacKenzie, B.R. Mattes and R.B. Kaner, "Polyaniline-ormasil nanocomposites," in Chemical Processing of Advanced Materials, L.L. Hench and J.K. West, eds. (John Wiley & Sons, New York 1992) pp. 737-744.
 
53. J.B. Wiley, P.R. Bonneau, R.E. Treece, R.F. Jarvis, Jr., E.G. Gillan, L. Rao and R.B. Kaner, "Solid-state metathesis routes to layered transition-metal dichalcogenides and refractory materials," in Supramolecular Architecture: Synthetic Control in Thin Films and Solids, T. Bein, ed., (American Chemical Society, Washington, D.C., Series No. 499, 1992) pp. 369-383.
 
54. J.D. Thompson, G. Sparn, F. Diederich, G. Gruner, K. Holczer, R.B. Kaner, R.L. Whetten, P.-M. Allemand, Q. Li and F. Wudl, "Physical properties of superconducting and ferromagnetic materials based on C60," Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc., 247, 315-320 (1992).
 
55. P.R. Bonneau, R.F. Jarvis, Jr. and R.B. Kaner, "Solid-state metathesis as a quick route to transitionmetal mixed dichalcogenides," Inorg. Chem., 31, 2127-2132 (1992).
 
56. C. Yeretzian, K. Hansen, M.M. Alvarez, K.S. Min, E.G. Gillan, K. Holczer, R.B. Kaner and R.L. Whetten, "Collisional probes and possible structures of La2C80," Chem. Phys. Lett., 196, 337-342 (1992).
 
57. E.G. Gillan, C. Yeretzian, K.S. Min, M.M. Alvarez, R.L. Whetten and R.B. Kaner, "Endohedral rare-earth fullerene complexes," J. Phys. Chem., 96, 6869-6872 (1992).
 
58. K.-J. Fu, W.L. Karney, O.L. Chapman, S.-M. Huang, R.B. Kaner, F. Diederich, K. Holczer and R.L. Whetten, "Giant vibrational resonances in A6C60," Phys. Rev. B, 46, 1937-1940 (1992).
 
59. C.E. Johnson, H.W. Jiang, K. Holczer, R.B. Kaner, R.L. Whetten and F. Diederich, "Upper critical field-temperature phase diagram of alkali-intercalated C60 superconductors," Phys. Rev. B, 46, 5880-5882 (1992).
 
60. O. Klein, G. Gruner, S.M. Huang, J.B. Wiley and R.B. Kaner, "The electrical resistivity of K3C60," Phys. Rev. B, 46, 11247-11249 (1992).
 
61. R.E. Treece, E.G. Gillan, R.M. Jacubinas, J.B. Wiley and R.B. Kaner, "From ceramics to superconductors: rapid materials synthesis by solid-state metathesis reactions," Mater. Res. Soc. Proc., 271, 169-174 (1992).
 
62. L. Degiorgi, G. Gruner, P. Wachter, S.-M. Huang, J. Wiley, R.L. Whetten, R.B. Kaner, K. Holczer and F. Diederich, "Electrodynamic response of Rb3C60," Phys. Rev. B, 46, 11, 250-253 (1992).
 
63. S. Foner, E.J. McNiff, Jr., D. Heiman, S.-M. Huang and R.B. Kaner, "Measurements of the upper critical field of K3C60 and Rb3C60 powder to 60 T", Phys. Rev. B, 46, 14, 936-939 (1992).
 
64. R.F. Jarvis, Jr., M. Mullenborn, B.G. Yacobi, N.M. Haegel and R.B. Kaner, "Solution synthesis and photoluminescence studies of small crystallites of cadmium telluride," Mater. Res. Soc. Proc., 272, 229-234 (1992).
 
65. L. Degiorgi, P. Wachter, G. Gruner, S.-M. Huang, J. Wiley and R.B. Kaner, "Optical response of the superconducting state of K3C60 and Rb3C60," Phys. Rev. Lett., 69, 2987-2990 (1992).
 
 
(1993)
 
66. E.-W. Chang, R.J. Kuk and R.B. Kaner, "Divalent cation dopants for polyparaphenylene," Synth. Met., 55, 930-935 (1993).
 
67. J.B. Wiley, S.-M. Huang, S. Cho, K. Holczer, R.L. Whetten and R.B. Kaner, "Solid-solution rubidium/potassium mixed-metal fullerides," Synth. Met., 56, 3160-3166 (1993).
 
68. M. Muellenborn, R.F. Jarvis, Jr., B.G. Yacobi, R.B. Kaner, C.C. Coleman and N.M. Haegel, "Characterization of solution-synthesized cadmium telluride and mercury telluride," Appl. Phys. A., 56, 317-311 (1993).
 
69. B.R. Mattes, M.R. Anderson, J.A. Conklin, H. Reiss and R.B. Kaner, "Morphological modification of polyaniline films for the separation of gases," Synth. Met., 57, 3655-3660 (1993).
 
70. S.-C. Huang, S.-M. Huang, H. Ng and R.B. Kaner, "Polyaniline capacitors," Synth. Met., 57, 4047-4052 (1993).
 
71. J.B. Wiley, E.G. Gillan and R.B. Kaner, "Rapid solid-state metathesis reactions for the synthesis of copper oxide and other metal oxides," Mater. Res. Bull., 28, 893-900 (1993).
 
72. K. Holczer, G.R. Chalmers, J.B. Wiley, S.-M. Huang, R.B. Kaner, F. Diederich and R.L. Whetten, "Phases, kinetics and structure of alkali-C60 compounds: Preparation of Rb3C60 and Rb3-xKxC60 Superconductors," Synth. Met., 59, 307-316 (1993).
 
73. R.E. Treece, G.S. Macala, L. Rao, D. Franke, H. Eckert and R.B. Kaner, "Synthesis of III-V semiconductors by solid-state metathesis," Inorg. Chem., 32, 2745-2752 (1993).
 
74. C. Yeretzian, J.B. Wiley, K. Holczer, T. Su, S. Nguyen, R. B. Kaner and R.L. Whetten, "Partial separation of fullerenes by gradient sublimation," J. Phys. Chem., 97, 10,097-10,102 (1993).
 
75. P.R. Bonneau and R.B. Kaner, "High-quality mixed-transition-metal dichalcogenides from solid-state exchange reactions," Inorg. Chem., 32, 6084-6087 (1993).
 
76. B.R. Mattes, M.R. Anderson, H. Reiss and R.B. Kaner, "The separation of of gases using conducting polymer films," in Intrinsically Conducting Polymers:  An Emerging Technology, M. Aldissi, ed., (Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, Netherlands, 1993) pp. 61-74.
 
77. R.E. Treece and R.B. Kaner, "Preparation of materials by solid-state metathesis (SSM) reactions," Ceramic Industries International, 103, 8-12 (1993).
 
78. D. Franke, H. Eckert, R.B. Kaner and R.E. Treece, "Quantitative evaluation of gallium phosphide samples prepared from rapid solid state metathesis. Solidstate 31P and 69Ga magic angle spinning NMR strategies," Anal. Chim. Acta, 283, 987-995 (1993).
 
79. K. Holczer, O. Klein, H. Alloul, Y. Yoshinari, F. Hippert, S.-M. Huang, R.B. Kaner and R.L. Whetten, "Non-Korringa 13C nuclear relaxation in thenormal state of the K3C60 superconductors," Europhysics Lett., 23, 63-69 (1993).
 
80. E. Ponthieu, L. Rao, L. Gengembre, J. Grimblot and R.B. Kaner, "Solid -state synthesis of aluminum nitride through a metathetical route," Solid State Ionics, 63-65, 116-121 (1993).
 
81. J.D. Thompson, G. Sparn, K. Holczer, O. Klein, G. Gruner, R.B. Kaner, F. Diederich and R.L. Whetten, “Characterization of Superconducting Fullerenes,” in Physical and Material Properties of High Temperature Superconductors, S.K. Malik and S.S. Shads, eds., Nova Science Publishers, Inc., New York (1993) pp. 139-148.
 
 
(1994)
 
82. L. Degiorgio, E.J. Nicol, G. Gruner, P. Wachter, S.-M. Huang, J. Wiley and R.B. Kaner, "Optical properties of the alkali-metal doped superconducting fullerenes: K3C60 and Rb3C60," Phys. Rev. B., 49, 7012-7025 (1994).
 
83. R.M. Jacubinas and R.B. Kaner, "Synthesis of high-temperature silicides via rapid solid-state metathesis", in High Temperatures in Silicides and Refractory Alloys, C.L. Briant, J.J. Petrovic, B.P. Bewlay, A.K. Vasudevan and H.A. Lipsitt, eds., Mater. Res. Soc. Proc., 322, 133-138 (1994).
 
84. L. Rao and R.B. Kaner, "Rapid solid-state precursor synthesis of crystalline boron nitride," Inorg. Chem., 33, 3210-3211 (1994).
 
85. J. Conklin and R.B. Kaner, "Diffusion through polymer membranes," The Encyclopedia of Advanced Materials, D. Bloor, R.J. Brook, M.C. Flemings, and S. Mahajah, eds. (Pergamon Press, London, England, 1994) pp. 1483-1488.
 
86. L. Rao and R.B. Kaner, “Rapid solid-state precursor synthesis of non-oxide ceramics,” Mater. Res. Soc. Proc., 327, 227-232 (1994).
 
87. E.G. Gillan and R.B. Kaner, "Rapid solid-state synthesis of refractory nitrides," Inorg. Chem., 33, 5693-5700 (1994).
 
88. R.E. Treece, J.A. Conklin and R.B. Kaner, "Metathetical synthesis of binary and ternary antiferromagnetic gadolinium pnictides (P, As, and Sb)," Inorg.  Chem., 33, 5701-5707 (1994).
 
89. L. Degiorgio, E.J. Nicol, G. Gruner, P. Wachter and R.B. Kaner, “Optical probing and Eliashberg calculation of the superconducting state in K3C60 and Rb3C60," Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst., 256, 267-274 (1994).
 
90. L. Rao, P. Yu and R.B. Kaner, "Numerical modeling of combustion synthesis with phase changes," J. Materials Synthesis and Processing, 2, 343-352 (1994).
 
 
(1995)
 
91. R.E. Treece, E.G. Gillan and R.B. Kaner, "Materials synthesis via solid-state metathesis reactions," Comments Inorg. Chem., 16, 313-337 (1995).
 
92. P.R. Bonneau, J.B. Wiley and R.B. Kaner, "Metathetical precursor route to molybdenum disulfide," Inorg. Synth., 30, 33-36 (1995).
 
93. L. Rao, E.G. Gillan and R.B. Kaner, "Rapid synthesis of transition-metal borides by solid-state metathesis," J. Mater. Res., 10, 353-361 (1995).
 
94. E. Knittle, R.B. Kaner, R. Jeanloz and M.L. Cohen, “High-pressure synthesis, characterization, and equation of state of cubic C-BN solid solutions,” Phys. Rev. B, 51, 12149-12156 (1995).
 
95. J. Conklin, S.-C. Huang, S.-M. Huang, T. Wen and R.B. Kaner, “Thermal properties of polyaniline and poly(aniline-co-o-ethylaniline),” Macromolecules, 28, 6522-6527 (1995).
 
 
(1996)
 
96. E.G. Gillan and R.B. Kaner, “Synthesis of refractory ceramics via rapid metathesis reactions between solid-state precursors,” Chem. Mater., 8, 333-343 (1996). Featured on cover.
 
97. J.A. Conklin, M.R. Anderson, H. Reiss and R.B. Kaner, "Anhydrous halogen acid interaction with polyaniline membranes: A gas permeability study," J. Phys. Chem., 100, 8425-8429 (1996).
 
98. A.N. Aleshin, N.B. Mironkov, A.V. Suvorov, J.A. Conklin, T.M. Su and R.B. Kaner, "Electrical properties of ion implanted and chemically doped polyaniline films," Mater. Res. Soc. Proc., 413, 609-613 (1996).
 
99. A.N. Aleshin, N.B. Mironkov and R.B. Kaner, "Low-temperature conductivity and magnetoresistance of ion-irradiated polyaniline on the metal side of the metal-insulator transition," Phys. Solid State, 38, 1738-1742 (1996).
 
100. C.C. Coleman, B. Magness, P. Melo, H. Goldwhite, W. Tikkanen, Q. Tham, K. Pham, R. Jacubinas, R.B. Kaner and R.E. Treece, “Intercalation of hydrazines in lead iodide,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids, 57, 1153-1158 (1996).
 
101. A.N. Aleshin, N.B. Mironkov, A.V. Suvorov, J.A. Conklin, T.M. Su and R.B. Kaner, "Transport properties of ion implanted and chemically doped polyaniline films," Phys. Rev. B, 54, 11638-11643 (1996).
 
 
(1997)
 
102. A.H. Kwon, J.A. Conklin, M. Makhinson and R.B. Kaner, "Chemical syntheses and characterization of fluoro-substituted polyanilines," Synth. Met., 84, 95-97 (1997).
 
103. A.N. Aleshin, N.B. Mironkov and R.B. Kaner, "The influence of weak localization and coulomb interaction on the low temperature resistance and magnetoresistance of ion implanted metallic polyaniline films," Synth. Met., 84, 769-771 (1997).
 
104. I.J. Ball, S.-C. Huang, T.M. Su and R.B. Kaner, "Permselectivity and temperature-dependent permeability of polyaniline membranes," Synth. Met., 84, 799-801 (1997).
 
105. T.M. Su, I.J. Ball, J.A. Conklin, S.-C. Huang, R.K. Larson, S.N. Nguyen, B.M. Lew and R.B. Kaner, "Polyaniline/polyimide blends for pervaporation and gas separation studies," Synth. Met., 84, 801-802 (1997).
 
106. P.-W. Wu, S.R. Holm, A. T. Duong, B. Dunn and R.B. Kaner, "A sol-gel solid electrolyte with high lithium ion conductivity," Chem. Mater., 9, 1004-1011 (1997).
 
107. J.A. Conklin, S.-C. Huang, T.M. Su and R.B. Kaner, "Gas and liquid separation applications of polyaniline membranes," in Handbook of Conducting Polymers 2nd edition, J. Reynolds, T. Skotheim and R. Elsenbaumer, eds. (Marcel Dekker, Inc., New York, 1997), pp. 945-961.
 
 
(1998)
 
108. C.H. Wallace, S.-H. Kim, G.A. Rose, L. Rao, J.R. Heath, M. Nicol and R.B. Kaner, "Solid-state metathesis  reactions under  pressure: A rapid route to crystalline gallium nitride," Appl. Phys. Lett., 72, 596-598 (1998).
 
109. N.M. Yamada, E.-W. Chang and R.B. Kaner, "Electrochemical synthesis and characterization of conjugated polymers, “Electrical  and Optical Polymer Systems: Fundamentals, Methods, and Applications, D.L. Wise, G.E. Wnek, D.J. Trantolo, T.M. Cooper, and J.D. Gresser, eds. (Marcel Dekker, Inc., New York, 1998), pp. 763-821.
 
110. A.N. Aleshin, N.B. Mironkov, A.V. Suvorov, I.O. Usov, J.A. Conklin, T.M. Su and R.B. Kaner, "Conductivity and magnetoconductivity of polynaniline films implanted with Ar+ and Ga+ ions, near the critical regime of the metal-insulator transition," J. Phys.- Cond. Mat., 10, 4867-4875 (1998).
 
111. I.J. Ball, S.-C. Huang and R.B. Kaner, "Polyaniline membranes for liquid separations," Soc. Plastics Eng. Proc., ANTEC 98, II, 1301-1305 (1998).
 
112. C.H. Wallace, J.L. O'Loughlin, L. Rao, S.-H. Kim, J.R. Heath, M. Nicol and R.B. Kaner, "The synthesis of crystalline gallium nitride using solid-state metathesis reactions under high pressures," Rev. High Press. Sci. Tech., 7, 1040-1042 (1998).
 
113. S.-C. Huang, I.J. Ball and R.B. Kaner, "Polyaniline membranes for pervaporation of carboxylic acids and water," Macromolecules, 31, 5456-5464 (1998).
 
114. R.B. Kaner, "Inorganic Chemistry," Encarta Reference Suite 99 (Microsoft Corp., Seattle, Washington, 1998).
 
 
(1999)
 
115. H. Guo, C.M. Knobler and R.B. Kaner, "A chiral recognition polymer based on polyaniline," Synth. Met., 101, 44-47 (1999).
 
116. S. B. Cronin, T. Koga, X. Sun, Z. Ding, S.-C. Huang, R. Kaner and M.S. Dresselhaus, “ Approaches toward chemically prepared multiple quantum well structures,” Thermoelectric Materials-The Next Generation Materials for Small-Scale Refrigeration and Power Generation Applications, T.M. Tritt, H.B. Lyon, Jr., G. Mahan, and M.G. Kanatzidis, eds., Mater. Res. Soc. Proc., 545, 397-402 (1999).
 
117. I.J. Ball, S-C. Huang, K.J. Miller, R.A. Wolf, J.Y. Shimano and R.B. Kaner, "The pervaporation of ethanol/water feeds with polyaniline membranes and blends," Synth. Met., 102, 1311-1312 (1999).
 
118. C.H. Wallace, T. Reynolds and R.B. Kaner, “Rapid synthesis of crystalline gallium nitride from solid precursors at atmospheric pressure,” Chem. Mater., 11, 2299-2301 (1999).
 
 
(2000-2001)
 
119. Z. Ding, S.-C. Huang, D. Marcus and R.B. Kaner, “Modification of bismuth tellurides for improving thermoelectric properties,” Proceedings of the Eighteenth International Conference on Thermoelectrics, The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, 721-724 (2000).
 
120. I.J. Ball, S.-C. Huang, R.A. Wolf, J.Y. Shimano and R.B. Kaner, “Pervaporation studies with polyaniline membranes and blends,” J. Membrane Science, 174, 161-176 (2000).
 
121. R.F. Jarvis, Jr., R.M. Jacubinas and R.B. Kaner, “Self-propagating metathesis routes to metastable group 4 phosphides,” Inorg. Chem., 39, 3243-3246 (2000).
 
122. J.L. O’Loughlin, C.-H. Kiang, C.H. Wallace, T. Reynolds, L. Rao and R.B. Kaner, “Rapid synthesis of carbon nanotubes by solid-state metathesis reactions,” J. Phys. Chem. 105, 1921-1924 (2001).
 
123. V. M. Egan, R. Bernstein, L. J. Hohmann, T. B. Tran and R. B. Kaner, “Influence of water on the chirality of camphorsulfonic acid doped polyaniline,” Chem. Commun., 801-802 (2001).
 
124. J.L. O’Loughlin, C.H. Wallace, S.M. Knox and R.B. Kaner, “Rapid solid-state synthesis of Ta, Cr and Mo nitrides,” Inorg. Chem., 40, 2240-2245 (2001). Featured on cover.
 
125. E.G. Gillan and R.B. Kaner, “Rapid energetic metathesis routes to crystalline metastable phases of zirconium and hafnium dioxide,” J. Mater. Chem., 11, 1951-1956 (2001).
 
126. M.J. Winokur, H. Guo and R.B. Kaner, “Structural study of chiral camphorsulfonic acid doped polyaniline,” Synth. Met., 119, 403-404 (2001).
 
127. Z. Ding, L. Viculis, J. Nakawatase and R.B. Kaner, “Intercalation and solution processing of bismuth telluride and bismuth selenide,” Adv. Mater.,  13, 797-800 (2001). Featured on cover.
 
128. R.W. Cumberland, R.G. Blair, C.H. Wallace, T.K. Reynolds and R.B. Kaner, “Thermal control of metathesis reactions producing GaN and InN,” J. Phys. Chem., 105, 11922-11927 (2001).
 
 
(2002-2003)
 
129. R.B. Kaner, “Gas, liquid and enantiomeric separations using polyaniline,” Synth. Met. 125, 65-71 (2002).
 
130. Z. Ding, L. Viculis, S. Cronin, T. Koga, M. Dresselhaus, S.-C. Huang and R.B. Kaner, “Solution chemical routes to two-dimensional bismuth tellurides for thermoelectric applications,” in “Thin films: preparation, characterization applications,” Kluwer Academic Press, pp. 157-169, 2002.
 
131. J. Huang, S. Virji, B.H. Weiller and R.B. Kaner, “Polyaniline nanofibers: facile synthesis and chemical sensors,” J. Am. Chem. Soc., 125, 314 (2003). Featured in Science – Editors Choice, “Synthesizing at the interface,” Jan. 3, 2003, pgs. 19-20 and Chemical & Engineering News, “An easy route to polyaniline nanofibers,” Jan. 6, 2003, pp. 24-25.
 
132. R.A. Janes, M.A. Low and R.B. Kaner, “Rapid solid-state metathesis routes to aluminum nitride,” Inorg. Chem., 42, 2719-2724 (2003).
 
133. L.M. Viculis, J.J. Mack and R.B. Kaner, “ A chemical route to carbon nanoscrolls,” Science, 299, 1361 (2003).
 
134. R.G. Blair, E.G. Gillan, N.K. Nguyen, D. Daurio and R.B. Kaner, “ Rapid solid-state synthesis of titanium aluminides,” Chem. Mater., 15, 3286-3293 (2003).
 
135. J. Huang, V.M. Egan, H. Guo, J. Yoon, A.L. Briseno, I.E. Rauda, R.L. Garrell, C.M. Knobler, F, Zhou and R.B. Kaner, “Enantioselective discrimination of D- and L-phenylalanine by chiral polyaniline thin films,” Adv. Mater., 15, 1158-1161 (2003).
 
136. R.B. Kaner, "Cesium," Chemical and Engineering News, 81, 132 (2003).
 
137. R.A. Janes, M. Aldissi and R.B. Kaner, “Controlling surface area of titanium nitride using metathesis reactions,” Chem. Mater. 15, 4431-4435 (2003).
 
 
(2004)
 
138. S. Virji, J. Huang, R.B. Kaner and B.H. Weiller, "Polyaniline nanofibers as gas sensors: response to classes of vapors and comparison to thin films," Nano Letters, 4, 591-596 (2004).
 
139. J. J. Huang and R.B. Kaner, A general chemical route to polyaniline nanofibers," J. Am. Chem. Soc., 126, 851-855 (2004).
 
140. J. Huang and R.B. Kaner, “Nanofiber formation in the chemical polymerization of aniline: A mechanistic study,” Angew. Chem., Int. Ed., 43, 5817-5821 (2004).
 
141. J. Huang and R.B. Kaner, "Flash welding of conducting polymers nanofibres,” Nature Materials, 3, 783 (2004). Featured in Nature Materials (3, 753, 2004) “Welding and patterning in a flash,” and in Chemical & Engineering News,” Dec. 20, 2004, p. 33 “Films in a flash.”
 
 
(2005)
 
142. J. Huang, S. Virji, B. Weiller and R.B. Kaner, “Polyaniline nanofiber sensors,” Chemistry: A European Journal, 10, 1314-1319 (2004). Featured on frontispiece. Top 10 most downloaded Concept Article in 2004 (see Chemistry: A European Journal, 11, 10, 2005).
 
143. J.J. Mack, L.M. Viculis, A. Ali, R. Luoh, G. Yang, H.T. Hahn, F.K. Ko and R.B. Kaner, "Graphite nanoplatelet reinforcement of electrospun polyacrylonitrile nanofibers," Adv. Mater., 17, 77-80 (2005).
 
144. S. Virji, R.B. Kaner and B.H. Weiller, “Hydrazine detection by polyaniline using fluorinated alcohol additives,” Chem. Mater., 17, 1256-1260 (2005).
 
145. J. Huang, J.A. Moore, J.H. Acquaye and R.B. Kaner, “A mechanochemical route to the conducting polymer polyaniline,” Macromolecules, 38, 317-321 (2005).
 
146. B.H. Weiller, S. Virji, C. Baker, J. Huang, D. Li and R.B. Kaner, “Polyaniline nanofibers and composite materials for chemical detection,” Nano Science and Technology Institute-Nanotech, 2, 281-284 (2005).
 
147. R.G. Blair, A. Anderson and R.B. Kaner, “A solid-state metathesis route to MgSiN2,”Chem. Mater., 17, 2155-2161 (2005).
 
148. R. Tseng, J. Huang, J. Ouyang, R.B. Kaner and Y. Yang, “Polyaniline nanofiber/gold nanoparticle nonvolatile memory, ” NanoLetters, 5, 1077-1080 (2005).
 
149. L.M. Viculis, J.J. Mack, O.M. Mayer, H.T. Hahn and R.B. Kaner, “Intercalation and exfoliation routes to graphite nanoplatelets,” J. Mater. Chem., 15, 974-978 (2005).
 
150. S. Virji, J.D. Fowler, C.O. Baker, J. Huang, R.B. Kaner and B.H. Weiller, “Polyaniline nanofiber composites with metal salts: Chemical sensors for hydrogen sulfide,” Small, 1, 624-627 (2005).
 
151. D. Li and R.B. Kaner, “Processable stabilizer-free polyaniline nanofiber aqueous colloids,” Chem. Commun., 3286-3288 (2005).
 
152. R.W. Cumberland, M.B. Weinberger, J.J. Gilman, S.M. Clark, S.H. Tolbert and R.B. Kaner, “Osmium diboride, an ultra-incompressible, hard material," J. Am. Chem. Soc., 127, 7264-7265 (2005). Featured in Chemical & Engineering News, May 16, 2005, pp. 33-34.
 
153. R.B. Kaner, J.J. Gilman and S.H. Tolbert, “Designing superhard materials,” Science, 308, 1268-1269, (2005).
 
 
(2006)
 
154.R.B. Kaner and D. Li, “Shape and Aggregation Control of Nanofibers: Not shaken, not stirred,” J. Am. Chem. Soc., 128, 968-975 (2006). Most accessed J. Am. Chem. Soc. article first quarter 2006 (see http://pubs.acs.org/journals/jacsat/promo/most_accessed/index.html).
 
155. J. Huang and R.B. Kaner, “The intrinsic nanofibrillar morphology of polyaniline,” Chem. Commun., 367-376, 2006. Featured on cover.
 
156. A.J. Anderson, R.G. Blair, S.M. Hick and R.B. Kaner, “Microwave initiated solid-state metathesis routes to Li2SiN2,” Chem. Mater. 16, 1318-1322 (2006).
 
157. J.J. Mack, S. Tari and R.B. Kaner, “Enhanced solid-state metathesis routes to carbon nanotubes,” Inorg. Chem. 45, 4243-4226 (2006).
 
158. R.G. Blair and R.B. Kaner, “Solid State Metathesis Materials Synthesis,” Aldrich, 5, 9 (2006).
 
159. K. Galatsis, K. Wang, Y. Botros, Y. Yang, Y.-H. Xie, J.F. Stoddart, R.B. Kaner, C. Ozkan, J. Liu, M. Ozkan, C. Zhou and K.W. Kim, “Emerging Memory Devices, Nontraditional Possibilities Based on Nanomaterials and Nanostructures,” IEEE Circuits and Devices, 22, 12-21 (2006). Featured on cover.
 
160. A.Z. Sadek, W. Wlodarski, K. Shin, R.B. Kaner and K. Kalantar-zadeh, “A layered surface acoustic wave gas sensor based on a polyaniline/In2O3 nanofibre composite,” Nanotechnology, 17, 4488-4492 (2006).
 
161. H. Tran and R.B. Kaner, “A general synthetic route to nanofibers of polyaniline derivatives,” Chem. Commun., 3915-3917 (2006).
 
162. J. Huang and R.B. Kaner, “Polyaniline nanofibers: synthesis, properties, and applications," in Handbook of Conducting Polymers 3rd ed., J. Reynolds and T. Skotheim, eds. (Marcel Dekker, Inc., New York, 2006), Chapter 7, pp. 194-241.
 
163. S. Virji, R.B. Kaner and B.H. Weiller, “Hydrogen sensors based on conductivity changes in polyaniline nanofibers,” J. Phys. Chem., 110, 22266-22270 (2006).
 
164. F. Masdarolomoor, P.C. Innis, S. Ashraf, R.B. Kaner and G.G. Wallace, Polyaniline/poly)2-methoxyaniline-5-sulfonic acid),” Macromol. Rapid Commun., 27, 1995-2000 (2006).
 
165. S. Virji, R.B. Kaner and B.H. Weiller, “Direct electrical measurement of the conversion of metal acetates to metal sulfides by hydrogen sulfide,” Inorg. Chem., 45, 10467-10472 (2006).
 
 
(2007)
 
166. L. Hu,  G. Gruner, D. Li, R.B. Kaner and J. Cech, “Patternable transparent carbon
nanotube films for electrochromic devices”,  J. Appl. Phys., 101, 16102-16105 (2007).
 
167. A.Z. Sadek, C. Baker, D.A. Powell, W. Wlodarski, R.B. Kaner and K. Kalantar-zadeh,
“Polyaniline nanofiber based surface acoustic wave gas sensors – effect of nanofiber
 diameter on H2 response,” IEEE Sensors, 7, 213-221 (2007).
 
168. R.J. Tseng, C.O. Baker, B. Shedd, J. Huang, J. Ouyang, R.B. Kaner and Y. Yang, “Charge Transfer Effect in Polyaniline-Gold Nanoparticles Memory System”, Appl. Phys. Lett., 90, 53101-53104 (2007).
 
169. H. Kim, H.T. Hahn, L.M. Viculis and R.B. Kaner, “Graphite/polystyrene nanocomposites: How intercalation stage affects electrical conductivity,” Carbon, 45, 1578-1582 (2007).
 
170. D. Li and R.B. Kaner, “How nucleation affects the aggregation of nanoparticles”,
J. Mater. Chem., 17, 2279-2282 (2007).  Highlight article, featured on frontispiece.
 
171. H.-Y. Chung, M.B. Weinberger, J.B. Levine, A. Kavner, J.-M. Yang, S.H. Tolbert and
R.B. Kaner, "Synthesis of ultra-incompressible superhard rhenium diboride at ambient pressure". Science, 316, 436-439 (2007).  Featured in Business Week, May 7, 2007, page 79.
 
172. E.H.L. Falcao, R.G. Blair, J.J. Mack, L.M. Viculis, C.-W. Kwon, M. Bendikov, R.B. Kaner, B.S. Dunn, and F. Wudl, “Microwave exfoliation of a graphite intercalation compound”,
 Carbon, 45, 1364-1366 (2007).
 
173. A.Z. Sadek, C.O. Baker, D.A. Powell, W. Wlodarski, R.B. Kaner and K. Kalantar-zadeh, “Polyaniline nanofiber based surface acoustic wave gas sensors – effect of nanofiber diameter on H2 response”, IEEE Sensors, 7, 213-218 (2007).
 
174. R.J. Tseng, C.O. Baker, B. Shedd, J. Huang, J. Ouyang, R.B. Kaner and Y. Yang,
“Charge transfer effect in the polyaniline-gold nanoparticle memory system”,  Appl. Phys. Lett., 90, 53101-53103 (2007).
 
175. A.Z. Sadek, W. Wlodarski, K. Kalantar-Zadeh, C. Baker and R.B. Kaner,
“Doped and dedoped polyaniline nanofiber based conductometric hydrogen gas sensors”,
Sensors and Actuators A, 139, 53-57 (2007).
 
176. D. Li and R.B. Kaner, “How nucleation affects the aggregation of nanoparticles”,
J. Mater. Chem., 17, 2279-2282 (2007).  Highlight article, featured on frontispiece.
 
177. H.-Y. Chung, M.B. Weinberger, J.B. Levine, R.W. Cumberland, A. Kavner, J.-M. Yang,
S.H. Tolbert and R.B. Kaner, "Synthesis of ultra-incompressible superhard rhenium diborideat ambient pressure", Science, 316, 436-439 (2007).  Featured in Chemical & Engineering News, April 23, 2007, p. 39 and Business Week, May 7, 2007, page 79.
 
178. B.J. Gallon, R.W. Kojima, R.B. Kaner and P.L. Diaconescu, “Palladium nanoparticles supported on polyaniline nanofibers as a semi-heterogeneous catalyst in water”, Angew. Chem., Int. Ed., 46, 7251-7254 (2007).
 
179. W. Wlodarski, A.Z. Sadek, K. Kalantar-Zadeh, C. Baker and R.B. Kaner, “Camphor sulfonic acid doped polyaniline nanofiber based 64°YX LiNbO3 SAW hydrogen gas sensor”, in Smart structures, devices and systems III, S.F. Al-Sarawi, ed., Proc. SPIE, 6414, 64141Q-64145Q (2007).
 
180. S. Virji, R.B. Kaner and B.H. Weiller, “Detection of toxic chemicals for homeland security using polyaniline nanofibers” in “Anti-Terrorism and Homeland Defense Polymers and Materials”,  J.G. Reynolds and G.E. Lawson and C.J. Koester, eds., (American Chemical Society Symposium Series 980, Washington, D.C., 2007),  pp. 101-115.
 
181. W. Wlodarski, A.Z. Sadek, C. Baker, K. Kalantar-Zadeh, R.B. Kaner and D. Mulcahy, “Camphor sulfonic acid doped polyaniline nanofiber based 64° YX LiNbO3 SAW hydrogen gas sensors”, in Smart Structures, Devices and Systems III, S.F. Al-Sarawi ed., Proc. SPIE, 6414, 64141Q-1-64141Q-5 (2007).
 
182. R.B. Kaner, “Periodic Table,” McGraw Hill Encyclopedia of Science and Technology, 10th Edition, pp., 2007.
 
183. H.D. Tran, W.G. Hong, J.M. D’Arcy, R.W. Kojima, B.H. Weiller, K. Shin and R.B. Kaner, “A template-free route to polypyrrole nanofibers”, Macromol. Rapid Commun., 28, 2293-2297 (2007).
 
184. S. Gilje, S. Han, M. Wang, K. Wang and R.B. Kaner, “A chemical route to graphene for device applications”, Nano Letters, 7, 3394-3398, 2007. Highlighted in the Nov. 28th issue of Nature, 450, 588, 2007 and the Dec. issue of Nature Nanotechnology, 2, 738, 2007.
 
185. H.-Y. Chung, M.B. Weinberger, J.B. Levine, R.W. Cumberland, A. Kavner, J.-M. Yang, S.H. Tolbert and R.B. Kaner, "Response to Comment on ‘Synthesis of ultra-incompressible superhard rhenium diboride at ambient pressure’", Science, 318, 1550 (2007). Full text at www.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/full/318/5856/1550d.
 
 
(2008)
 
186. A.Z. Sadek, W. Wlodarski, K. Shin, R.B. Kaner and K. Kalantar-Zadeh, “A polyaniline/WO3 nanofiber composite-based ZnO/64° YX LiNbO3 SAW hydrogen gas sensor”, Synthetic Metals, 158, 29-32 (2008).
 
187. L. Al-Mashat, H.D. Tran, W. Wlodarski, R.B. Kaner and K. Kalantar-Zadeh,
“Conductometric hydrogen gas sensors based on polypyrrole nanofibers”,
IEEE Sensors, 8, (2008).
 
188. L. Al-Mashat, H.D. Tran, W. Wlodarski, R.B. Kaner and K. Kalantar-Zadeh, “Hydrogen
gas sensor fabricated from polyanisidine nanofibers deposited on 36°YX LiTaO3 layered
surface acoustic wave transducer”, in BioMEMS and NanoTechnology III, D.V. Nicolau,
D. Abbott, K. Kalantar-Zadeh, T. Di Matteo, S.M. Bezrukov, eds. Proc. SPIE, 6799,
67991B-67998 (2008).
 
189. C.O. Baker, B. Shedd, P.C. Innis, P.G. Whitten, G.M.  Spinks, G.G. Wallace, and R.B. Kaner, “Monolithic actuators from flash welded polyaniline nanofibers”, Adv. Mater., 20, 155-158 (2008).
 
190. D. Li, B. Muller, S. Gilje, R.B. Kaner and G.G. Wallace, “Processable aqueous dispersions
of graphene nanosheets”, Nature Nanotech. 3, 101 (2008).
 
191. D. Li and R.B. Kaner, “Graphene-based materials”, Science, 320, 1170-1171 (2008).
 
192. T. Lam, H. Tran, W. Yuan, Z. Yu, S.M. Ha, R. Kaner and Q. Pei, “Polyaniline nanofibers as a novel electrode material for fault-tolerant dielectric elastomer actuators”, Proc. SPIE, 6927, 69270O-4 (2008). (10 pages)
 
193. H.-Y. Chung, M.B. Weinberger, J.-M. Yang, S.H. Tolbert and R.B. Kaner, “Correlation between hardness and elastic moduli of the ultra-incompressible transition metal diborides RuB2, OsB2 and ReB2”, Appl. Phys. Lett., 92, 261904 (2008). (3 pages)
 
194. A.Z. Sadek, W. Wlodarski, K. Shin, R.B. Kaner and K. Kalantar-Zadeh, “A polyaniline/WO3 nanofiber composite-based ZnO/64° YX LiNbO3 SAW hydrogen gas sensor”, Synth. Met.,158, 29 (2008).  (4 pages)
 
195. H. Qasim, A.Z. Sadek, R. Arsat, W. Wlodarski, I, Belski, R.B. Kaner, K. Kalantar-Zadeh, “Optical and conductivity dependence on doping concentration of polyaniline nanofibers” Device and Process Technologies for Microelectronics, MEMS, Photonics, and Nanotechnology IV, H.H. Tan, J.-C. Chiao, L. Faraone, C. Jagadish, J. Williams andA.R. Wilson, eds., Proc. of SPIE, 6800, 680012-1 (2008).  (8 pages)
 
196. L. Al-Mashat, H.D. Tran, W. Wlodarski, R.B. Kaner and K. Kalantar-Zadeh, “Polypyrrole nanofiber surface acoustic wave gas sensors”, Sensors and Actuators B, 134, 826 (2008).  (6 pages)
 
197. H.D. Tran, Y. Wang, J.M. D-Arcy and R.B. Kaner, “Toward an understanding of the formation of conducting polymer nanofibers”, ACS Nano, 2, 1841 (2008). (8 pages)
 
198. H.D. Tran, I. Norris, J.M. D'Arcy, H. Tsang, Y. Wang, B.R. Mattes and R.B. Kaner, "Substituted polyaniline nanofibers produced via rapid initiated polymerization", Macromolecules, 41, 7405, 2008. (6 pages)
 
199. M.J. Allen, J.D. Fowler, V.C. Tung, Y. Yang, B.H. Weiller and R.B. Kaner, “Temperature dependent Raman spectroscopy of chemically derived graphene”, Appl. Phys. Lett., 93, 193119/1 (2008). (3 pages)
 
200. M.S. Dresselhaus, G. Chen, Z. Ren, J.-P. Fleurial, P. Gogna, M.Y. Tang, D. Vashaee, H. Lee, X. Wang, G. Joshi, G. Zhu, D. Wang, R. Blair, S. Bux and R.B. Kaner, “Nanocomposites to enhance ZT in thermoelectrics” in Thermoelectric Power Generaton, Mater. Res Soc. Symp. Proc., 785, 29 (2008). (13 pages)
 
201. J.B. Levine, S.L. Nguyen, H.I. Rasool, J.A. Wright, S.E. Brown and R.B. Kaner, “Preparation and properties of metallic, superhard rhenium diboride crystals”, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 130, 16953, (2008). (6 pages)


(2009)
 
202. M.J. Allen, V.C. Tung, Y. Yang and R.B. Kaner, “High-throughput solution processing of large-scale graphene”, Nature Nanotech., 4, 25 (2009). (5 pages)
 
203. D. Li, J. Huang and R.B. Kaner, “Polyaniline nanofibers: A unique polymer nanostructure for versatile applications”, Acc. Chem. Res., 42, 135 (2009). (11 pages).  Featured on cover.
 
204. M.J. Allen, V.C. Tung, L. Gomez, Z. Xu, L.M. Chen, G. Yang, C. Zhou, R.B. Kaner and Y. Yang, “Soft transfer printing of chemically converted graphene”, Adv. Mater., 21, 2098 (2009). (5 pages)
 
205. Z. Guo, K. Shin, A.B. Karki, D.P. Young and R.B. Kaner, “Fabrication and characterization of iron oxide nanoparticles filled polypyrrole nanocomposites”, J. Nanopart. Res., 11, 1441 (2009). (12 pages)
 
206. Z.D. Zujovic, G.A. Bowmaker, H.D. Tran and R.B. Kaner, “Solid-state NMR of polyaniline nanofibers”, Synth. Met., 159, 710 (2009). (5 pages)
 
207. S. Virji, R. Kojima, J.D. Fowler, J.G. Villanueva, R.B. Kaner and B.H. Weiller, “Polyaniline nanofiber composites with amines: novel materials for phosgene detection”, Nano Res., 2, 135 (2009).  (8 pages)
 
208. Z. Ding, S.K. Bux, D.J. King, S.-C. Huang and R.B. Kaner, “Lithium intercalation and exfoliation of bismuth selenide and bismuth telluride”, J. Mater. Chem., 19, 2588 (2009). (5 pages)
 
209. Y. Wang, H.D. Tran and R.B. Kaner, “Template-free growth of highly aligned conducting polymer nanowires”, J. Phys. Chem. C,113, 10346 (2009).  (4 pages)
 
210. J. Fowler, M.J. Allen, V.C. Tung, Y. Yang, R.B. Kaner and B.H. Weiller, “Practical chemical sensors from chemically derived graphene” J. Fowler, M.J. Allen, V.C. Tung, Y. Yang, R.B. Kaner and B.H. Weiller, “Practical chemical sensors from chemically derived graphene” ACS Nano, 3, 301 (2009). (5 pages)  Highlighted in ACS Nano, 3, 243 (2009).
 
211. H. Tran, D. Li and R.B. Kaner, “One-dimensional conducting polymer nanostructures: bulk synthesis and applications”, Adv. Mater., 21, 1487 (2009).  (13 pages)  Featured on inside cover.
 
212. S.N. Tkachev, J.B. Levine, A. Kisliuk, A.P. Sokolov, S. Guo, J. Eng and R.B. Kaner, “Shear modulus of polycrystalline rhenium diboride determined from surface Brillouin spectroscopy”, Adv. Mater., 21, 1 (2009).  (3 pages)
 
213. B. Shedd, C.O. Baker, M.J. Heller, R.B. Kaner and H.T. Hahn, “Fabrication of monolithic microstructures from polyaniline nanofibers”, Mater. Sci Eng. B, 162, 111 (2009).  (5 pages)
 
214. M. Weinberger, J.B. Levine, H.-Y. Chung, R.W. Cumberland, H. Rasool, J.M. Yang, R.B. Kaner and S. Tolbert, "Incompressibility and Hardness of Solid Solution Transition Metal Diborides: Ru1-xOsxB2", Chem. Mater., 21, 1915 (2009).  (7 pages)
 
215. R. Arsat, M. Breedon, M. Shafiei, P.G. Spizziri, S. Gilje, R.B. Kaner, K. Kalantar-zadeh and W. Wlodarski, “ Graphene-like nano-sheets for surface acoustic wave gas sensor applications”, Chem. Phys. Lett., 467, 344 (2009). (4 pages)
 
216. S. Bux, R.G. Blair, P. Gogna, G. Chen, M. Dresselhaus, R.B. Kaner and J.-P. Fleurial, “Nano-bulk silicon as an effective thermoelectric materials”, Adv. Funct. Mater. (in press).
 
217. J. Fowler, S. Virji, R.B. Kaner and B.H. Weiller, “Hydrogen detection by polyaniline nanofibers on gold and platinum electrodes”, J. Phys. Chem. C (in press). (6 pages)
 
218. V.C. Tung, L.-M. Chen, M.J. Allen, J.K. Wassei, K. Nelson, R.B. Kaner, and Y. Yang “Low-tempearture solution processing of graphene-carbon nanotube hybrid materials for high-perfprmance transparent conductors”, Nano Letters, 9, 1949 (2009). (7 pages)
 
219. S. Virji, R. Kojima, J. Fowler, R.B. Kaner and B.H. Weiller, “Polyaniline nanofiber-metal salt composite materials for arisne detection”, Chem. Mater., 21, 3056 (2009). (6 pages)
 
220. S. Bux, J.-P. Fleurial, R. Blair, P. Gogna, T. Caillat and R.B. Kaner, “High temperature thermoelectric properties of nano-bulk silicon and silicon germanium”, Mater. Res. Soc. Proc. (in press).
 
221. M.J. Allen, M. Wang, K.L. Wang and R.B. Kaner, “Chemically induced folding of single and bilayer graphene”, Chem. Commun. (in press).
 
222. M.J. Allen, V.C. Tung and R.B. Kaner, “Honeycomb Carbon: A Review of Graphene”, Chemical Reviews (in press).
 
223. S. Gilje, S. Dubin, A. Badakshan, J. Farar, S.A. Danczyk, R.B. Kaner, “Photothermal Deoxygenation of Graphene Oxide to Graphitic Carbon for Distributed Ignition and Patterning Applications”, Adv. Mater. (in press).