Hubbell, Wayne L.
Structural and Computational Biology
Proteomics and Bioinformatics
Jules Stein Eye Institute BH-973
Jules Stein Eye Institute BH-973
Professor Hubbell received his B.S. degree in Chemistry at Oregon State University in 1965 and his Ph.D. in Chemistry at Stanford University in 1970. After completing a postdoctoral fellowship at Stanford, he joined the faculty of the Department of Chemistry at UC Berkeley. In 1983, he moved his laboratory to the Jules Stein Eye Institute at UCLA.
During his graduate and postdoctoral work with Harden McConnell at Stanford University, Wayne Hubbell used spin label technology to first describe the fluidity and fluidity gradient in biological membranes, landmark discoveries of broad impact in cell and membrane biology.
In 1970, he joined the faculty of the Department of Chemistry at UC Berkeley where his laboratory designed new surfactants, pioneered the molecular characterization of reconstituted membrane proteins, and developed a series of unique spin label probes to study membrane electrostatics.
In 1983, Prof. Hubbell moved his laboratory to UCLA where he became the first Jules Stein Professor of Ophthalmology and Professor of Chemistry and Biochemistry. Soon after arriving, he combined unrelated technical advancements in molecular biology and EPR spectroscopy and pioneered the powerful new technology of site-directed spin labeling (SDSL) for the determination of structure and conformational dynamics in both soluble and membrane proteins.
For his development and application of SDSL, Prof. Hubbell has received numerous honors and awards including the Gold Medal of the International EPR/ESR Society, the International Zavoisky Award from the Physical Technical Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, the Bruker Prize from the Royal Society of Chemistry-ESR Group, and the Elisabeth Roberts Cole from the Biophysical Society (US). He is a member of the National Academy of Sciences, American Academy of Arts and Sciences, elected to the first class of fellows of the Biophysical Society and recipient of an honorary doctorate from the University of Pécs, Hungary.
Retinal Photoreceptor Membrane Structure and Function :
Dr. Hubbell's research is focused on understanding the inter-relationship of protein structure, dynamics and function. Of particular interest are proteins involved in visual signal transduction (rhodopsin, the G-protein transducin and arrestin) and soluble ligand-binding proteins. To explore functional protein dynamics in such complex systems, his laboratory has pioneered the technique of "Site-Directed Spin Labeling" (SDSL) in which a paramagnetic nitroxide side chain (R1) is introduced into the protein as a molecular sensor. The technique exploits the sensitivity of Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) to motions of R1 in the biologically important nanosecond and microsecond time domains that correspond to backbone fluctuations and conformational switching, respectively. Research in the group involves a parallel development of new EPR and SDSL technology and applications to the systems mentioned above.
Left: The biochemistry of signal transduction in rod photoreceptor cells. Center: The crystal structure of the R1 nitroxide side chain in T4 Lysozyme Right: The structure of rhodopsin,showing the direction of movement of a transmembrane helix during photoactivation.
Several programs for the analysis of EPR data have been developed in the lab. They are all written in LabVIEW by Christian Altenbach and can be downloaded from his site.
Honors & Awards
- University of Pécs, Hungary Honorary Degree
- National Academy of Sciences Fellow
- American Academy of Arts and Sciences Fellow
- Biophysical Society Fellow
- International EPR Society Gold Medal
- Gordon Research Conferences Alexander M. Cruickshank Lecturer
- Alcon Research Institute Award
- Biophysical Society Elisabeth Roberts Cole Award
- NIH MERIT Award
- Research to Prevent Blindness Senior Investigator Award
- Camille and Henry Dreyfus Foundation Teacher-Scholar Award
- Stanford University AFORSR-NRC Postdoctoral Fellow, Chemistry
- Intl. EPR Symposium Piette Lecture
- Burnham Institute Distinguished Lecture
- Alfred P. Sloan Foundation Fellow
[ Recent Publications ]
- Schredelseker J, Paz A, Lopez C, Chen J-N, Hubbell W, Abramson J. High-resolution structure and double electron-electron resonance of zebrafish voltage dependent anion channel 2 reveal an oligomeric population. J Biol Chem 289:12566-77 (2014) PMCID4007448
- Lerch MT, Yang Z, Brooks EK, Hubbell WL. Mapping protein heterogeneity under pressure with site-directed spin labeling and double electron-electron resonance. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 111:R1201-10 (2014) PMCID3977274
- Chen Q, Zhou Y, Kim M, Hanson SM, Francis DJ, Vishnivetskiy SA, Altenbach C, Klug CS, Hubbell WL, Gurevich VV. Self-association of arrestin family members. Handb Exp Pharmacol 219:205-23 (2014)
- Lerch MT, McCoy J, Horwitz J, Hubbell WL. Circular dichroism and site-directed spin labeling reveal structural and dynamical features of high-pressure states of myoglobin. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 110:E4714-22 (2013) PMCID3856799
- Lopez CJ, Yang Z, Altenbach C, Hubbell WL. Conformational selection and adaptation to ligand binding in T4 lysozyme cavity mutants. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 110:E4306-15 (2013) PMCID3832024
- Razzaghi S, Brooks EK, Bordignon E, Hubbell WL, Yulikov M, Jeschke G. EPR relaxation-enhancement-based distance measurements on orthogonally spin-labeled T4-lysozyme. Chembiochem 14:1883-90 (2013) PMCID3804414
- Hubbell WL, Lopez CJ, Altenbach C, Yang Z. Technological advances in site-directed spin labeling of proteins. Curr Opin Struct Biol 23:725-33 (2013) PMCID3805720
- Song X, Seo J, Baarneur F, Vishnivetskiy S, Chen Q, Kim M, Brooks E, Altenbach C, Hong Y, Hanson S, Palazzo M, Chen J, Hubbell W, Gurevich E, Gurevich V. Rapid degeneration of rod photoreceptors expressing self-association-deficient arrestin-1-mutant. Cell Signal 25:2613-24 (2013) PMCID3833262
- Toledo-Warshaviak D, Khramtzov V, Cascio D, Altenbach C, Hubbell W. Structure and dynamics of an imidazoline nitroxide side chain with strongly hindered internal motion in proteins. J Mag Reson 232C:53-61 (2013) PMCID3758229
- Garbuio L, Bordignon E, Brooks E, Hubbell W, Jeschke G, Yulikov M. Orthogonal spin labeling and Gd(III)-nitroxide distance measurements on bacteriophage T4-lysozyme. J Phys Chem B 117:3145-53 (2013) PMCID3634801
- Vishnivetskiy SA, Chen Q, Palazzo MC, Brooks EK, Altenbach C, Iverson TM, Hubbell WL, Gurevich VV. Engineering visual arrestin-1 with special functional characteristics. J Biol Chem 288:3394-405 (2013) PMCID3561558
- Kim M, Vishnivetskiy S, Van Eps N, Alexander N, Cleghorn W, Zhan X, Hanson S, Morizumi T, Ernst O, Meiler J, Gurevich V, Hubbell W. Conformation of receptor-bound visual arrestin. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA H109:18407-18412 (2012) PMCID3494953
- Francis D, Hubbell W, Klug C. Probing protein secondary structure using EPR: Investigating a dynamic region of visual arrestin. Appl Magn Reson 43:405-419 (2012)
- Durer Z, Kudryashov D, Sawaya M, Altenbach C, Hubbell W, Reisler E. Structural states and dynamics of the D-loop in actin. Biophys J 103:930-9 (2012) PMCID3433612
- Lopez CJ, Oga S, Hubbell WL. Mapping molecular flexibility of proteins with site-directed spin labeling: a case study of myoglobin. Biochemistry 51:6568-83 (2012) PMCID3483079
- Yang Z, Liu Y, Borbat P, Zweier JL, Freed JH, Hubbell WL. Pulsed ESR dipolar spectroscopy for distance measurements in immobilized spin labeled proteins in liquid solution. J Am Chem Soc 134:9950-2 (2012) PMCID3409244
- Fawzi N, Fleissner M, Anthis N, Kalai T, Hideg K, Hubbell W, Clore GM. A rigid disulfide-linked nitroxide side chain simplifies the quantitative analysis of PRE data. J Biomol NMR 51:105-14 (2011) PMCID3489005
- Fleissner MR, Bridges M, Brooks E, Cascio D, Kalai T, Hideg K, Hubbell WL. Structure and dynamics of a conformationally constrained nitroxide side chain and applications in EPR spectroscopy. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 108:16241-6 (2011) PMCID3182725
- Van Eps N, Preininger A, Alexander N, Kaya A, Meier S, Meiler J, Hamm H, Hubbell WL. Interaction of a G protein with an activated receptor opens the interdomain interface in the alpha subunit. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 108:9420-4 (2011) PMCID3111277
- Kalai T, Fleissner M, Jeko J, Hubbell W, Hideg K. Synthesis of new spin labels for Cu-free click conjugation. Tetrahedron Lett 52:2747-2749 (2011)
- Vishnievetskiy SA, Gimenez LE, Francis DJ, Hanson SM, Hubbell WL, Klug CS, Gurevich VV. Few residues within an extensive binding interface drive receptor interaction and determine the specificity of arrestin proteins. J Biol Chem 286:24288-99 PCMID3129209
- Kim M, Hanson S, Vishnivetskiey S, Song X, Cleghorn W, Hubbell W, Gurevich V. Robust self-association is a common feature of mammalian visual arrestin-1. Biochemistry 50:2235-42 (2011) PMCID3062689
- Warshaviak DT, Serbulea L, Houk KN, Hubbell WL. Conformational analysis of a nitroxide side chain in an alpha helix with density functional theory. J Phys Chem B 115:397-405 (2011) PMC3267783
- McCoy J, Hubbell W. High pressure EPR reveals conformational equilibria and compressibility changes in spin labeled proteins. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 108:1331-6 (2011) PMCID302975811
- Armstrong B, Choi J, Lopez C, Wesener D, Hubbell W, Cavagnero S, Han S. Site–specific hydration dynamics in the nonpolar core of a molten globule by dynamic nuclear polarization of water. J Am Chem Soc 133:5987-95 (2011) PMCID3095581
- Januszyk K, Fleissner M, Atchabahian L, Shieh F, Altenbach C, Martin S, Guo F, Hubbell W, Clubb R. Site-directed spin labeling electron paramagnetic resonance study of the ORF1 protein from a mouse L1 retrotransposon. Protein Sci 20:1231-43 (2011) PMCID3149196
[ 2010 and Prior ]
- Van Eps Ned, Anderson Lori L, Kisselev Oleg G, Baranski Thomas J, Hubbell Wayne L, Marshall Garland R Electron paramagnetic resonance studies of functionally active, nitroxide spin-labeled peptide analogues of the C-terminus of a G-protein alpha subunit. Biochemistry, 2010; 49(32): 6877-86.
- Zhang Ziwei, Fleissner Mark R, Tipikin Dmitriy S, Liang Zhichun, Moscicki Jozef K, Earle Keith A, Hubbell Wayne L, Freed Jack H Multifrequency electron spin resonance study of the dynamics of spin labeled T4 lysozyme. The journal of physical chemistry. B, 2010; 114(16): 5503-21.
- Bridges Michael D, Hideg Kálmán, Hubbell Wayne L Resolving Conformational and Rotameric Exchange in Spin-Labeled Proteins Using Saturation Recovery EPR. Applied magnetic resonance, 2010; 37(1-4): 363.
- Vishnivetskiy Sergey A, Francis Derek, Van Eps Ned, Kim Miyeon, Hanson Susan M, Klug Candice S, Hubbell Wayne L, Gurevich Vsevolod V The role of arrestin alpha-helix I in receptor binding. Journal of molecular biology, 2010; 395(1): 42-54.
- Scoville Damon, Stamm John D, Altenbach Christian, Shvetsov Alexander, Kokabi Kaveh, Rubenstein Peter A, Hubbell Wayne L, Reisler Emil Effects of binding factors on structural elements in F-actin. Biochemistry, 2009; 48(2): 370-8.
- López Carlos J, Fleissner Mark R, Guo Zhefeng, Kusnetzow Ana K, Hubbell Wayne L Osmolyte perturbation reveals conformational equilibria in spin-labeled proteins. Protein science : a publication of the Protein Society, 2009; 18(8): 1637-52.
- Fleissner Mark R, Brustad Eric M, Kálai Tamás, Altenbach Christian, Cascio Duilio, Peters Francis B, Hideg Kálmán, Peuker Sebastian, Schultz Peter G, Hubbell Wayne L Site-directed spin labeling of a genetically encoded unnatural amino acid. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 2009; 106(51): 21637-42.
- Fleissner Mark R, Cascio Duilio, Hubbell Wayne L Structural origin of weakly ordered nitroxide motion in spin-labeled proteins. Protein science : a publication of the Protein Society, 2009; 18(5): 893-908.
- Hanson Susan M, Dawson Eric S, Francis Derek J, Van Eps Ned, Klug Candice S, Hubbell Wayne L, Meiler Jens, Gurevich Vsevolod V A model for the solution structure of the rod arrestin tetramer. Structure (London, England : 1993), 2008; 16(6): 924-34.
- Altenbach C, Kusnetzow AK, Ernst OP, Hofmann KP, Hubbell WL High-resolution distance mapping in rhodopsin reveals the pattern of helix movement due to activation. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 2008; 105(21): 7439-44.
- Altenbach Christian, Kusnetzow Ana Karin, Ernst Oliver P, Hofmann Klaus Peter, Hubbell Wayne L High-resolution distance mapping in rhodopsin reveals the pattern of helix movement due to activation. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 2008; 105(21): 7439-44.
- Epand Raquel F, Zhang Yan-Liang, Mirzabekov Tajib, Kagan Bruce, Silberstein Anatoly, Hubbell Wayne L, Epand Richard M, Chakraborti Samitabh, Dimitrov Dimiter S, Anderson W French, Rozenberg-Adler Yanina Membrane activity of an amphiphilic alpha-helical membrane-proximal cytoplasmic domain of the MoMuLV envelope glycoprotein. Experimental and molecular pathology, 2008; 84(1): 9-17.
- Hanson SM, Vishnivetskiy SA, Hubbell WL, Gurevich VV Opposing effects of inositol hexakisphosphate on rod arrestin and arrestin2 self-association. Biochemistry, 2008; 47(3): 1070-5.
- Hanson Susan M, Vishnivetskiy Sergey A, Hubbell Wayne L, Gurevich Vsevolod V Opposing effects of inositol hexakisphosphate on rod arrestin and arrestin2 self-association. Biochemistry, 2008; 47(3): 1070-5.
- Knierim Bernhard, Hofmann Klaus Peter, Gärtner Wolfgang, Hubbell Wayne L, Ernst Oliver P Rhodopsin and 9-demethyl-retinal analog: effect of a partial agonist on displacement of transmembrane helix 6 in class A G protein-coupled receptors. The Journal of biological chemistry, 2008; 283(8): 4967-74.
- Knierim B, Hofmann KP, Gartner W, Hubbell WL, Ernst OP Rhodopsin and 9-demethyl-retinal analog:effect of a partial agonist on displacement of transmembrane helix 6 in class A G protein-coupled receptors. J Biol Chem, 2008; 283(8): 4967-74.
- Schwartz TW, Hubbell WL. Structural biology: A moving story of receptors. Nature, 2008; 455(7212): 473-4.
- Schwartz Thue W, Hubbell Wayne L Structural biology: A moving story of receptors. Nature, 2008; 455(7212): 473-4.
- Guo Z, Cascio D, Hideg K, Hubbell WL Structural determinants of nitroxide motion in spin labeled proteins:solvent-exposed sites in helix B of T4 lysozyme Protein Sci, 2008; 17(2): 228-239.
- Guo Zhefeng, Cascio Duilio, Hideg Kálmán, Hubbell Wayne L Structural determinants of nitroxide motion in spin-labeled proteins: solvent-exposed sites in helix B of T4 lysozyme. Protein science : a publication of the Protein Society, 2008; 17(2): 228-39.
- Vamvouka M, Cieslak J, Van Eps N, Hubbell W, Gross A The structure of the lipid embedded potassium channel voltage sensor determined by double-electron-electron resonance spectroscopy. Protein Sci, 2008; 17(3): 506-17.
- Vamvouka Magdalini, Cieslak John, Van Eps Ned, Hubbell Wayne, Gross Adrian The structure of the lipid-embedded potassium channel voltage sensor determined by double-electron-electron resonance spectroscopy. Protein science : a publication of the Protein Society, 2008; 17(3): 506-17.
- J. Sasaki, B. Phillips, X. Chen, N. Van Eps, A-Lim Tsai, W. Hubbell, J. Spudich Different dark conformations function in color-sensitive photosignaling by the sensory rhodopsin I-Htrl complex Biophys. J., 2007; 92: 4045-4053.
- W. Oldham, N. Van Eps, A. Preininger, W. Hubbell and H. Hamm Mapping allosteric connections from the receptor to the nucleotide-binding pocket of heterotrimeric G proteins Proc Natl Acad Sci, 2007; 104: 7927-7932.
- Expand RF, Zhang YL, Mirzabekov T, Kagan B, Silberstein A, Hubbell WL, Expand RM, Chakraborti S, Dimitrov DS, Anderson WF, Rozenberg-Adler Y Membrane activity of an amphiphilic alpha-helical membrane-proximal cytoplasmic domain of the MoMuLV envelope glycoprotein. Exp Mol Pathol, 2007; 84(1): 9-17.
- Knierim B, Hofmann KP, Ernst OP, Hubbell WL Sequence of late molecular events in the activation of rhodopsin Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 2007; 104(51): 20290-5.
- Z. Guo, D. Cascio, K. Hideg, T. Kalai and W. Hubbell Structure and Interactions of Nitroxide Side-chains in T4 Lysozyme: Tertiary contact and solvent-inaccessible sites in helix G. Protein Sci, 2007; 16: 1069-1086.
- Susan Hanson, N Van Eps, D Francis, S Vishnivetskiy, C Klug, W Hubbell, V Gurevich Structure and function of the visual arrestin oligomer EMBO J, 2007; 26: 1726-1736.
- Smirova I, Kasho V, Choe JY, Altenbach C, Hubbell WL, Kaback HR Sugar binding induces an outward facing conforamtion of LacY, Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 2007; 104(42): 16504-9.
- A. Shvetsov, J. Stamm, M. Phillips, C. Altenbach, P. Rubenstein, K. Hideg, W. Hubbell, E. Reisler Conformational Dynamics of Loop 262-274 in G- and F-actin Biochemistry, 2006; 45: 6541-6549.
- A Kusnetzow, C Altenbach, and W Hubbell Conformational states and dynamics of rhodopsin in micelles and bilayers Biochemistry, 2006; 45: 5538-5550.
- K Jacobsen, W Hubbell, O Ernst, and T Risse Details of the Partial Unfolding of T4 Lysozyme on quartz using site-directed spin labelling Angew Chem Int Ed, 2006; 45: 3874-3877.
- S Hanson, D Francis, S Vishnivetskiy, E Kolobova, W Hubbell, C Klug, V. Gurevich Differential interaction of spin labeled arrestin with inactive and active phosphorhodopsin. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci , 2006; 103: 4900-4905.
- Damon Scoville, John D. Stamm, Dora Toledo-Warshaviak, Christian Altenbach, Martin Phillips, Alexander Shvetsov, Peter A. Rubenstein, Wayne L. Hubbell, and Emil Reisler Hydrophobic loop dynamics and actin filament stability. Biochemistry, 2006; 45: 13576-84.
- J. Crane, C. Mao, A. Lilly, V. Smith, Y. Suo, W. Hubbell, L. Randall Mapping of the docking of SecA onto the chaperone SecB by site-directed spin labeling: insight into the mechanism of ligand transfer during protein export. J Mol Biol, 2006; 353: 295-307.
- W. Oldham, N. Van Eps, W. Hubbell, H. Hamm Mechanism of the receptor-catalyzed activation of heterotrimeric G proteins. Nat Struct Biol, 2006; 13: 772-777.
- Q. Cai, A. Kusnetzow, W. Hubbell, I. Haworth, G. Gacho, N. Van Eps, K. Hideg, E. Chambers, and P. Qin Site-directed spin labeling measurements of nanometer distances in nucleic acids using a sequence-independent nitroxide probe. Nucleic Acids Res, 2006; 34: 4722-4730.
- J. Crane, Y. Suo1, A. Lilly, C. Mao, W. Hubbell, and L. Randall Sites of interaction of a precursor polypeptide on the export chaperone SecB mapped by site-directed spin labeling. , J Mol Biol, 2006; 363: 63-74.
- N Van Eps , W Oldham , H Hamm, W Hubbell Structural and dynamical changes in an alpha-subunit of a hetertrimic G-protein along the activation pathway. Proc Natl Acad Sci, 2006; 44: 16194-16199.
- Van Eps N Oldham WM Hamm HE Hubbell WL Structural and dynamical changes in an alpha-subunit of a heterotrimeric G protein along the activation pathway Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 2006; 103(44): 16194-9.
- J. Pyka, J. Ilnicki, C. Altenbach, W. Hubbell and W. Froncisz Accessibility and dynamics of nitroxide side chains in T4 lysozyme measured by saturation recovery EPR. Biophys J, 2005; 89: 2059-2068.
- C. Altenbach, W. Froncisz, R. Hemker, H. Mchaourab, W. Hubbell Accessibility of nitroxide side chains: Absolute Heisenberg exchange rates from power saturation EPR. Biophys J, 2005; 89: 2103-2112.
- K. Jacobsen, W. Hubbell, T. Risse Determination of the orientation of T4L vectorially bound to a planar supported lipid bilayer using site-directed spin labeling Biophys. J, 2005; 88: 4351-4365.
- C. Klug, T. Camenisch, W. Hubbell, J. Hyde Multiquantum EPR spectroscopy of spin labeled arrestin K267C at 35 GHz. Biophys. J, 2005; 88: 3641-3647.
- P. Qin, J. Feigon, W. Hubbell Site-directed spin labeling studies reveal a coupled mechanism in the formation of the GAAA tetraloop/receptor upon Mg(2+)- dependent docking of a GAAA tetraloop. J Mol Biol , 2005; 351: 1-8.
- Z. Lian, Y. Lou, J. Freed, L. Columbus, W. Hubbell A multifrequency electron spin resonance study of spin labeled T4 lysozyme dynamics using the slowly relaxing local structure model. J. Phys. Chem B, 2004; 108: 17649-17659.
- M. Lietzow, W. Hubbell Motion of spin labeled side chains in cellular retinol binding protein: Correlation with structure and nearest neighbor interactions in an anti-parallel beta sheet. Biochemistry, 2004; 43: 3137-3151.
- L. Columbus, W. Hubbell Sensing Backbone Dynamics with site-directed spin labeling: the GCN4 Leucine Zipper in solution and bound to DNA Biochemistry, 2004; 43: 7273-7287.
- J. Kim, C. Altenbach, M. Kono, D. Oprian, W. Hubbell, H.G. Khorana Structural origins of constitutive activation in Rhodopsin: role of the K296/E113 salt bridge Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci, 2004; 101: 12508-12513.
- J. Isas, R. Langen, W. Hubbell, H. Haigler Structure and dynamics of a helical hairpin that mediates calcium-dependent membrane-binding of Annexin B12. J Biol Chem, 2004; 279: 32492-32498.
- Peter Z. Qin, K Hideg, Juli Feigon, and Wayne L. Hubbell Monitoring RNA base structure and dynamics using site-directed spin labeling Biochemistry, 2003; 42: 6772-6783.
- Jeffrey H. Zhang, Gaoping Xiao, Robert P. Gunsalus and Wayne L. Hubbell Phosphorylation triggers domain separation in the DNA binding response regulator Biochemistry, 2003; 42: 2552-2559.
- W. Hubbell, C. Altenbach, C. Hubbell, H. G. Khorana Rhodopsin structure, dynamics and activation: a perspective from crystallography, site-directed spin labeling, sulfhydryl reactivity and disulfide cross-linking. Adv Protein Chem, 2003; 63: 243-290.
- T. Risse, W. Hubbell, J. Isas, H. Haiger Structure and dynamics of proteins on planar surfaces: Annexin 12 as an exploratory example. Phys. Rev. Lett, 2003; 91: 188101.
- T. Kalai, J. Jeko, W. Hubbell, K. Hideg Synthesis of 2,2- and 2,5-disubstituted 1-oxyl pyrrolidine radicals as new homobifunctional cross-linking spin labels Synthesis , 2003; 13: 2084-2088.
- A. Preininger, N. Van Eps, N.-J. Yu, M. Medkova, W. Hubbell and H. Hamm The myristoylated amino terminus of Galpha(i)(1) plays a critical role in the structure and function of Galpha(i)(1) subunits in solution. Biochemistry, 2003; 42: 7931-7941.
- M. Sutton, A. Guzzo, I. Narumi, M. Costanzo, C. Altenbach, A. Ferentz, W. Hubbell and G. Walker A model for the structure of the Escherichia coli SOS-Regulated UmuD2 protein. DNA Repair, 2002; 1: 77-93.
- L. Columbus and W. Hubbell A new spin on protein dynamics. TiBS, 2002; 27: 288-295.
- Serag AA, Altenbach C, Gingery M, Hubbell WL, Yeates TO Arrangement of subunits and ordering of beta-strands in an amyloid sheet. Nature Struct Biol, 2002; 9: 734-739.
- M. Medkova, A. Preininger, NJ Yu, W.L. Hubbell, H. Hamm Conformational changes in the amino terminal helix of the G protein alpha subunit following dissociation from Gbetagamma subuni. Biochemistry, 2002; 41: 9962-72.
- Gross, A Hubbell, WL Identification of protein side chains near the membrane-aqueous interface: a site-directed spin labeling study of KcsA. Biochemistry. , 2002; 41(4): 1123-8.
- A. Gross and W. Hubbell Identification of protein side chains near the membrane/aqueous interface: a site-directed spin labeling study of KcsA. Biochemistry, 2002; 41: 1123-1128.
- T. Kalai, M. Balog, J. Jeko, W. Hubbell and K. Hideg Palladium-catalysed coupling reactions of paramagnetic vinyl halides Synthesis , 2002; 16: 2365-2372.
- A. Barnakov, C. Altenbach, L. Barnakova, W. Hubbell, G. Hazelbauer Site-directed spin labeling of a bacterial chemoreceptor reveals a dynamic, loosely packed transmembrane domain. Protein Sci, 2002; 11: 1472-1481.
- Barnakov, A Altenbach, C Barnakova, L Hubbell, WL Hazelbauer, GL Site-directed spin labeling of a bacterial chemoreceptor reveals a dynamic, loosely packed transmembrane domain. Protein science : a publication of the Protein Society. , 2002; 11(6): 1472-81.
- J. Isas, R. Langen, H. Haigler, and W. Hubbell Structure and dynamics of a helical hairpin and loop region in annexin 12: A site-directed spin labeling study. Biochemistry, 2002; 41: 1464-1473.
- Isas, JM Langen, R Haigler, HT Hubbell, WL Structure and dynamics of a helical hairpin and loop region in annexin 12: a site-directed spin labeling study. Biochemistry. , 2002; 41(5): 1464-73.
- Sokal, I Li, N Klug, CS Filipek, S Hubbell, WL Baehr, W Palczewski, K Calcium-sensitive regions of GCAP1 as observed by chemical modifications, fluorescence, and EPR spectroscopies. The Journal of biological chemistry. , 2001; 276(46): 43361-73.
- Altenbach, C Oh, KJ Trabanino, RJ Hideg, K Hubbell, WL Estimation of inter-residue distances in spin labeled proteins at physiological temperatures: experimental strategies and practical limitations. Biochemistry. , 2001; 40(51): 15471-82.
- Altenbach, C Oh, KJ Trabanino, RJ Hideg, K Hubbell, WL Estimation of inter-residue distances in spin labeled proteins at physiological temperatures: experimental strategies and practical limitations. Biochemistry. , 2001; 40(51): 15471-82.
- Serag, AA Altenbach, C Gingery, M Hubbell, WL Yeates, TO Identification of a subunit interface in transthyretin amyloid fibrils: evidence for self-assembly from oligomeric building blocks. Biochemistry. , 2001; 40(31): 9089-96.
- Columbus, L., Kalai, T., Jeko, J., Hideg, K., Hubbell, W. Molecular motion of spin labeled side chains in alpha-helices: analysis by variation of side chain structure. Biochemistry, 2001; 40: 3828-3846.
- K. Cai, J. Klein-Seetharaman, C. Altenbach, W. Hubbell, H.G. Khorana Probing the dark state tertiary structure in the cytoplasmic domain of rhodopsin: proximities between amino acids deduced from spontaneous disulfide bond formation between cysteine pairs engineered cytoplasmic loop 1, 3, and 4. Biochemistry, 2001; 40: 12479-12485.
- Klein-Seetharaman, J Hwa, J Cai, K Altenbach, C Hubbell, WL Khorana, HG Probing the dark state tertiary structure in the cytoplasmic domain of rhodopsin: proximities between amino acids deduced from spontaneous disulfide bond formation between Cys316 and engineered cysteines in cytoplasmic loop 1. Biochemistry. , 2001; 40(42): 12472-8.
- Qin, P., Butcher, S., Feigon, J., Hubbell, W. Quantative analysis of the isolated GAAA tetraloop/receptor interaction in solution: A site-directed spin labeling study. Biochemistry, 2001; 40: 6929-6936.
- C. Altenbach, J. Klein-Seetharaman, K. Cai, H. G. Khorana and W. Hubbell Structure and function in rhodopsin: mapping light-dependent changes in distance between residue 316 in Helix 8 and residues in the sequence 60-75, covering the cytoplasmic end of helices TM 1 and TM 2 and their connection loop CL 1. Biochemistry, 2001; 40: 15493-15500.
- Altenbach, C Cai, K Klein-Seetharaman, J Khorana, HG Hubbell, WL Structure and function in rhodopsin: mapping light-dependent changes in distance between residue 65 in helix TM1 and residues in the sequence 306-319 at the cytoplasmic end of helix TM7 and in helix H8. Biochemistry. , 2001; 40(51): 15483-92.
- Langen, R Oh, KJ Cascio, D Hubbell, WL Crystal structures of spin labeled T4 lysozyme mutants: implications for the interpretation of EPR spectra in terms of structure. Biochemistry. , 2000; 39(29): 8396-405.
- Hubbell, W., Cafiso, D., Altenbach, C. Identifying conformational changes with site-directed spin labeling. Nature Struct. Biol., 2000; 7: 735-739.
- Altenbach, C Klein-Seetharaman, J Hwa, J Khorana, HG Hubbell, WL Structural features and light-dependent changes in the sequence 59-75 connecting helices I and II in rhodopsin: a site-directed spin-labeling study. Biochemistry. , 1999; 38(25): 7945-9.
- Gross, A Columbus, L Hideg, K Altenbach, C Hubbell, WL Structure of the KcsA potassium channel from Streptomyces lividans: a site-directed spin labeling study of the second transmembrane segment. Biochemistry. , 1999; 38(32): 10324-35.
- Langen, R Isas, JM Hubbell, WL Haigler, HT A transmembrane form of annexin XII detected by site-directed spin labeling. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. , 1998; 95(24): 14060-5.
- Langen, R Isas, JM Luecke, H Haigler, HT Hubbell, WL Membrane-mediated assembly of annexins studied by site-directed spin labeling. The Journal of biological chemistry. , 1998; 273(35): 22453-7.
- Mchaourab, H., Oh, K.-J., Fang, C., Hubbell, W. Conformation of T4 lysozyme: hinge bending motion and substrate-induced conformational transition studied by site-directed spin labeling. Biochemistry, 1997; 36: 307-316.
- Kim, J.-M., Altenbach, C., Thurmond, R., Khorana, H.G., Hubbell, W. Structure and function of rhodopsin: rhodopsin mutants with a neutral amino acid at E134 have a partially activated conformation in the dark. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci., 1997; 94: 14273-14278.
- Oh, K.-J., Zhan, C., Cui, C., Hideg, K., Collier, R.J., Hubbell, W.L. Organization of the T domain of diphtheria toxin in membranes: a site-directed spin labeling study. Science, 1996; 273: 810-812.
- Farrens, DL Altenbach, C Yang, K Hubbell, WL Khorana, HG Requirement of rigid-body motion of transmembrane helices for light activation of rhodopsin. Science. , 1996; 274(5288): 768-70.
- Hubbell, W., Mchaourab, H., Altenbach, C. and Lietzow, M. Watching your protein move using site-directed spin labeling. Structure, 1996; 4: 779-783.
- Steinhoff, HJ Mollaaghababa, R Altenbach, C Hideg, K Krebs, M Khorana, HG Hubbell, WL Time-resolved detection of structural changes during the photocycle of spin-labeled bacteriorhodopsin. Science. , 1994; 266(5182): 105-7.